PHYSICS BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Prepared to accompany the book:

 

Physics, the Human Adventure:                    From Copernicus to Newton and Beyond      By Gerald Holton & Stephen G. Brush          Rutgers University Press, 2001

***In order to search Physics Bibliography for specific Words, Terms, People, etc., type "Ctrl + F"*** 

 

Contents

  1. Chapter and section titles (linked to corresponding "Sources, etc." in item 2)

  2. Sources, Interpretations, and Reference Works (keyed to Chapters and Sections in the book)

  3. General Bibliography

  4. Answers to Selected Numerical Problems

 

1.  Chapter and section titles

 

(Click on Chapter title to go directly to that part of "Sources, Interpretations, and Reference Works")

 

General Information about Sources, Interpretations, and Reference Works in History of Science

 

PART A

 

THE ORIGINS OF SCIENTIFIC COSMOLOGY

 

Chapter 1.  The Astronomy of Ancient Greece

 1.1      The motions of stars, sun, and planets  

 1.2      Plato's problem  

 1.3      The Aristotelian system   

 1.4      How big is the earth?   

 1.5      The heliocentric theory   

 1.6      Modified geocentric theories 

 1.7      The success of the Ptolemaic system   

 

Chapter 2.  Copernicus's Heliocentric Theory

 2.1      Europe reborn

 2.2      The Copernican system 

 2.3      Bracing the system   

 2.4      The opposition to Copernicus' theory

 2.5      Historic consequences 

 

Chapter 3.  On the Nature of Scientific Theory

 3.1      The purpose of theories

 3.2      The problem of change: Atomism

 3.3      Theories of vision

 3.4      Criteria for a good theory in physical science 

 

Chapter 4.  Kepler's Laws

 4.1      The life of Johannes Kepler   

 4.2      Kepler's first law

 4.3      Kepler's second law 

 4.4      Kepler's third law

 4.5      Kepler's theory of vision   

 4.5      The new concept of physical law 

 

Chapter 5.  Galileo and the New Astronomy

 5.1      The life of Galileo  

 5.2      The telescopic evidence for the Copernican system  

 5.3      Toward a physical basis for the heliocentric system

 5.4      Science and freedom  

PART B

 

THE STUDY OF MOTION

 

Chapter 6.  Mathematics and the Description of Motion

 6.1      René Descartes

 6.2      Constant velocity

 6.3      The Concept of Average Speed    

 6.4      Instantaneous Speed    

 6.5      Acceleration 

 6.6      Oresme's Graphical Proof of the Mean-Speed Theorem 

 6.7      Equations of Motion for Constant Acceleration  

Chapter 7.  Galileo and the Kinematics of Free Fall

 7.1      Introduction 

 7.2      Aristotelian physics  

 7.3      Galileo's Two New Sciences 

 7.4      Galileo's study of accelerated motion

 

Chapter 8.  Projectile Motion

 8.1      Projectile with initial horizontal motion

 8.2      Introduction to vectors

 8.3      The general case of projectile motion

 8.4      Applications of the law of projectile motion

 8.5      Galileo's conclusions  

 8.6      Summary 

 

PART C

 

NEWTON'S LAWS AND HIS SYSTEM OF THE WORLD

 

Chapter 9.     Newton's Laws of Motion

 9.1      Science in the seventeenth century  

 9.2      A short sketch of Newton's life

 9.3      Newton's Principia

 9.4      Newton's first law of motion

 9.5      Newton's second law of motion   

 9.6      Standard of mass

 9.7      Weight  

 9.8      The equal-arm balance  

 9.9      Inertial and gravitational mass

 9.10     Examples and applications of Newton's second law of motion   

 9.11          Newton's third law of motion

 9.12          Examples and applications of Newton's third law      

 

Chapter 10. Rotational motion

10.1      Kinematics of uniform circular motion   

10.2      Centripetal acceleration 

10.3      Derivation of the formula for centripetal acceleration and force

10.4      The earth's centripetal acceleration and absolute distances in the solar system

Chapter 11.  Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

11.1      Derivation of the law of universal gravitation  

11.2      Gravitating planets and Kepler's third law

11.3      The Cavendish experiment: The constant of gravitation

11.4      The masses of the earth, sun, and planets

11.5      Some influences on Newton's work

11.6      Some consequences of the law of universal gravitation

11.7      The discovery of new planets using Newton's theory of gravity

11.8      Bode's law: An apparent regularity in the positions of the planets

11.9      Gravity and the galaxies

11.10     "I do not feign hypotheses"

11.11    Newton's place in modern science  

 

PART D

 

ON STRUCTURE AND METHOD IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE

 

Chapter 12: On the Nature of Concepts

12.1      Introduction: The search for constancies in change

12.2      Science and nonscience

12.3      The lack of a single method

12.4      Physical concepts: Measurement and definition

12.5      Physically meaningless concepts and statements

12.6      Primary and secondary qualities

12.7      Mathematical law and abstraction

12.8      Explanation

 

Chapter 13: On the Duality and Growth of Science

13.1      The free license of creativity

13.2      "Private" science and "public" science

13.3      The natural selection of physical concepts

13.4      Motivation   

13.5      Objectivity  

13.6      Fact and interpretation

13.7      How science grows

13.8      Consequences of the model

 

Chapter 14: On the Discovery of Laws

14.1      Opinions on scientific procedure

14.2      A sequence of elements in formulations of laws

14.3      The limitations of physical law

14.4      The content of science; summary

 

PART E

 

THE LAWS OF CONSERVATION

 

Chapter 15.  The Law of Conservation of Mass

15.1      Prelude to the conservation law

15.2      Steps toward a formulation

15.3      Lavoisier's experimental proof

15.4      Is mass really conserved?   

 

Chapter 16.  The Law of Conservation of Momentum

16.1      Introduction

16.2      Definition of momentum

16.3      Momentum and Newton's laws of motion

16.4      Examples involving collisions

16.5      Examples involving explosions

16.6      Further examples

16.7      Does light have momentum?

16.8      Angular momentum and the Nebular Hypothesis

 

Chapter 17.  The Law of Conservation of Energy

17.1      Christiaan Huygens and the kinetic energy (vis viva) concept  

17.2      Preliminary questions: The pile driver   

17.3      The concept of work

17.4      Various forms of energy

17.5      The conservation law, first form; and applications 

17.6      Extensions of the conservation law

17.7      Historical background of the generalized law of conservation of energy: the nature of heat

17.8      Mayer's discovery of energy conservation

17.9      Joule's experiments on energy conservation 

17.10     General illustrations of the LCE

17.11     Conservation laws and symmetry

 

Chapter 18.  The Law of Dissipation of Energy

18.1      Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian World Machine"

18.2      The problem of the cooling of the Earth

18.3      The second law of thermodynamics and the dissipation of energy   

18.4      Entropy and the heat death

PART F

 

ORIGINS OF THE ATOMIC THEORY IN PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY

 

Chapter 19.  The Physics of Gases

19.1      The nature of gases -- early concepts

19.2      Air pressure

19.3      The general gas law

19.4      Two gas models

 

Chapter 20.   The Atomic Theory of Chemistry

20.1      Chemical elements and atoms

20.2      Dalton's model of gases

20.3      Properties of Dalton's chemical atom

20.4      Dalton's symbols for representing atoms

20.5      The law of definite proportions

20.6      Dalton's rule of simplicity

20.7      The early achievements of Dalton's theory

20.8      Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes of reacting gases

20.9      Avogadro's model of gases

20.10     An evaluation of Avogadro's theory

20.11     Chemistry after AVogadro: the concept of valence

20.12     Molecular weights

 

Chapter 21.  The Periodic Table of Elements

21.1      The search for regularity in the list of elements

21.2      The early periodic table of elements

21.3      Consequences of the periodic law

21.4      The modern periodic table

 

Chapter 22.  The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

22.1      Introduction

22.2      Some qualitative successes of the kinetic- molecular theory

22.3      Model of a gas, and assumptions in the  kinetic theory

22.4      The derivation of the pressure formula

22.5      Consequences and verification of the kinetic theory

22.6      The distribution of molecular velocities

22.7      Additional results and verification of the kinetic theory

22.8      Specific heats of gases

22.9      The problem of irreversibility in kinetic theory: Maxwell's Demon

22.10     The recurrence paradox

 

PART G

 

LIGHT AND ELECTROMAGNETISM

 

Chapter 23.  The wave theory of light   

23.1      Theories of refraction and the speed of light   

23.2      The propagation of periodic waves    

23.3      The wave theory of Young and Fresnel

23.4      Color

 

Chapter 24.     Electrostatics

24.1      Introduction

24.2      Electrification by friction

24.3      Law of conservation of charge

24.4      A modern model for electrification

24.5      Insulators and conductors

24.6      The electroscope 

24.7      Coulomb's law of electrostatics

24.8      The electrostatic field

24.9      Lines of force

24.10     Electric potential difference -- qualitative discussion

24.11     Potential difference -- quantitative discussion

24.12     Uses of the concept of potential

24.13     Electrochemistry

24.14     Atomicity of charge

 

Chapter 25.      Electromagnetism, X-Rays, and Electrons

25.1      Introduction 

25.2      Currents and magnets  

25.3      Electromagnetic waves and ether

25.4      Hertz's experiments

25.5      Cathode rays

25.6      X-rays and the turn of the century

25.7      The "Discovery of the Electron"

 

Chapter 26.  The Quantum Theory of Light

26.1      Continuous emission spectra  

26.2      Planck's empirical emission formula

26.3      The quantum hypothesis

26.4      The photoelectric effect

26.5      Einstein's photon theory

26.6      The photon-wave dilemma

26.7      Applications of the photon concept

26.8      Quantization in science

 

PART H

 

THE ATOM AND THE UNIVERSE IN MODERN PHYSICS

 

Chapter 27.  Radioactivity and the Nuclear Atom

27.1      Early Research on Radioactivity and Isotopes 

27.2      Radioactive half life

27.3      Radioactive series

27.4      Rutherford's nuclear model

27.5      Moseley's x-ray spectra

27.6      Further concepts of nuclear structure

 

Chapter 28.  Bohr's Model of the Atom

28.1      Line emission spectra

28.2      Absorption line spectra

28.3      Balmer's formula  

28.4      Niels Bohr and the problem of atomic structure

28.5      Energy levels in hydrogen atoms

28.6      Further developments

 

Chapter 29.  Quantum Mechanics

29.1      Recasting the foundations of physics once more

29.2      The wave nature of matter

29.3      Knowledge and reality in quantum mechanics

29.4      Systems of identical particles

 

Chapter 30.  Einstein's theory of relativity

30.1      Biographical Sketch of Albert Einstein

30.2      The FitzGerald-Lorentz Contraction

30.3      Einstein's formulation (1905)

30.4      Galilean transformation equations

30.5      The relativity of simultaneity

30.6      The relativistic (Lorentz) transformation equations

30.7      Consequences and examples

30.8      The equivalence of mass and energy

30.9      Relativistic quantum mechanics

30.10     The general theory of relativity

 

Chapter 31.  The origin of the solar system and the expanding universe

31.1      The nebular hypothesis

31.2      Planetesimal and tidal theories

31.3      Revival of monistic theories after 1940

31.4      Nebulae and galaxies

31.5      The expanding universe

31.6      Lemaître's primeval atom

 

Chapter 32.  Construction of the elements and the universe

32.1      Nuclear physics in the 1930s

32.2      Formation of the elements in stars

32.3      Fission and the atomic bomb

32.4      Big Bang or Steady State?

32.5      Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Radiation

32.6      Beyond the Big Bang

 

Chapter 33.  Thematic Elements and Styles in Science

33.1      The thematic element in science  

33.2      Themata in the history of science

33.3      Styles of thought in science and culture

Appendix I.  Abbreviations and Symbols

Appendix II. Metric System Prefixes, Greek Alphabet, Roman Numerals

Appendix III. Defined Values, Fundamental Constants and Astronomical Data

Appendix IV.  Conversion Factors

Appendix V.  Systems of Units

Appendix VI.  Alphabetic List of the Elements

Appendix VII.  Periodic Tables of Elements

Appendix VIII.  Summary of Some Trigonometric Relations

Appendix IX.  Vector Algebra

Answers to Selected Problems

 

2.  Sources, interpretations and reference works

 

Recent scholarly work on the history of science is compiled in the annual Current Bibliography (formerly called Critical Bibliography), published as an issue of the journal Isis; cumulations going back to the first CB in 1913 are also available, for example:

John Neu (editor), Isis Cumulative Bibliography 1986-1995: A Bibliography of the History of Science formed from the annual Isis Current Bibliographies, 4 volumes, Canton, MA: Science History Publications 1997.

The CB going back to 1975 is also available in major libraries, and to members of the History of Science Society, as a searchable on-line data base, together with bibliographies of the history of technology, through RLIN (HST file).

In the following list, works cited only by author and short title may be found with full citations in the General Bibliography which follows this section.

 

Chapter 1   The Astronomy of Ancient Greece

 

M. R. Cohen and I. E. Drabkin, A Source Book in Greek Science, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948; reprinted by Harvard University Press. A wealth of source material and penetrating comments; see pages 90-143 for astronomy.

D. R. Dicks, Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle, Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1970.

Pierre Duhem, To Save the Phenomena, an Essay on the Idea of Physical Theory from Plato to Galileo, translated from the French edition of 1908 by E. Doland and C. Maschler. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969; Chapters 1, 2, 3

Norwood Russell Hanson, Constellations and Conjectures, pages 1-140.  Includes many good diagrams to show how the planetary models actually work.

M. K. Munitz (editor), Theories of the Universe, New York: Free Press, 1965. A valuable collection of sources and historical articles; see pages 1-138.

O. Neugebauer, The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, second edition, Dover, 1969. Egyptian, Babylonian, and Greek mathematics and astronomy.

S. Sambursky, The Physical World of the Greeks, London: Routledge & Paul, 1963.

G. Sarton, A History of Science, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952, 1959. Two volumes on Greek science; unfortunately Sarton was unable to complete this project before his death.

 

Section 1.2  Plato's problem

 

Plato, Phaedon, translated by David Gallop, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

 

Section 1.3  The Aristotelian System

 

Aristotle, On the Heavens, translated by Guthrie; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960; another translation (same title) by Stuart Leggatt, Warminster, Eng.: Aris & Phillips, 1995.

Jonathan Barnes, Aristotle, New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

J. D. G. Evans, Aristotle, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.

James Evans, The Theory and Practice of Ancient Astronomy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

W. Jaeger, Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of his Development, second edition, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.

G. E. R. Lloyd, Aristotelian Explanations, New York: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 8

Friedrich Solmsen, Aristotle's System of the Physical World, New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970.

 

1.4  How big is the earth?

 

Jacques Dubka, "Eratosthenes' measurement of the Earth reconsidered," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 46, pages 55-66 (1993)

Edward Gulbekian, "The origin and the value of the station unit used by Eratosthenes in the 3rd century, B.C.," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 37, pages 359-363

J. B. Russell, Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians, New York: Praeger, 1991. 

 

1.6  Modified geocentric theories

 

Bernard R. Goldstein, "Saving the phenomena: The background to Ptolemy's planetary theory," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 28, pages 1-12 (1997)

Ptolemy, The Almagest, translated by G. J. Toomer, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Glen van Brummelen, "Computer animations of Ptolemy's models of the motions of the sun, moon, and planets," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 29, pages 271-274 (1998)

Donn MacMinn, "An analysis of Ptolemy's treatment of retrograde motion," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 29, pages 257-270 (1998)

 

1.7  The success of the Ptolemaic system

 

Dante Alighieri, Paradiso, translated by C. S. Singleton, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.

   

Chapter 2   Copernicus's Heliocentric Theory

 

Section 2.1   Europe reborn

 

Owen Gingerich, "'Crisis' versus Aesthetic in the Copernican Revolution," Vistas in Astronomy, Vol. 17, pages 85-95 (1975).  Rejects the story that Copernicus was responding to a "crisis" caused by pre-Copernican astronomers piling "epicycles on epicycles" in order to fit new data.  See comments by R. I. Griffiths, PSA 1988, Vol. 1, pages 127-132.

Edward Grant, Planets, Stars, and Orbs: The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

M. B. Hall (editor), Nature and Nature's Laws, New York: Harper, 1970; paperback; pages 1‑52, extracts from sixteenth‑century writings on astronomy.

 

Section 2.2  The Copernican System

 

Peter Barker, "Copernicus, the orbs, and the equant," Synthese, Vol. 83 (1990), pages 317-323.  Argues that Copernicus accepted the reality of celestial spheres.

Peter Barker and Roger Ariew, "Introduction," in Revolution and Continuity: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Early Modern Science, edited by Barker and Ariew, pages 1-19, Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1991.  They argue that the "originality of Copernicus" is a myth: he was probably aware of the work of Arabic astronomers who rejected the equant and replaced it with combinations of circles.  Their view is criticized in a review by Owen Gingerich, "Throwing out the baby with the bath water," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 27, pages 365-368 (1996).

Alan Chalmers, "Planetary Distances in Copernican Theory,"  British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 32, pages 374-375 (1981);  see also articles by Martin Curd and Keith Hutchison and reply by Chalmers, ibid, Vol. 34, pages 367-374 (1983).

Nicolaus Copernicus, Commentariolus, translated with introduction and notes by E. Rosen in Three Copernican Treatises, New York: Dover, 1959.

Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, edited by J. Dobrzycki, translation and commentary by E. Rosen, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

C. A. Gearhart, "Epicycles, Eccentrics, and Ellipses: The Predictive Capabilities of Copernican Planetary Models," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 32, pages 207-222 (1985).

Norwood Russell Hanson, "Contra-equivalence: a defense of the originality of Copernicus," Isis, Vol. 55, pages 308-325 (1964).  Comments on Price's article (1962).

Norwood Russell Hanson, Constellations and Conjectures, pages 141-249

M. K. Munitz (editor), Theories of the Universe, pages 141-189. Includes extracts from the writings of Copernicus and Bruno.

 

D. J. deS. Price, "Contra-Copernicus: a critical re‑estimation of the mathematical planetary theory of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and Kepler," in Critical Problems in the History of Science, edited by M. Clagett, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1962, pages 197-218.  See comments by Hanson (1964).

Noel Swerdlow, "The Derivation and first Draft of Copernicus's Planetary Theory: A Translation of the Commentariolus with Commentary," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 117, Pages 423-512 (1973).

Noel Swerdlow and Otto Neugebauer, Mathematical Astronomy in Copernicus' De Revolutionibus, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984.

 

Section 2.4   The Opposition to Copernicus's Theory

 

Martha Baldwin, "Magnetism and the anti-Copernican polemic," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 16, pages 155-174 (1985)

 

Section 2.5  Historic consequences

 

James M. Lattis, Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christoph Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Cosmology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Edward Rosen, Copernicus and the Scientific Revolution, Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1984.

 

Chapter 3.   On the Nature of Scientific Theory

 

David L. Hull, "Studying the study of science scientifically," Perspectives on Science, Vol. 6, pages 209-231 (1998).  On Planck's Principle, Popper's Principle, and other generalizations.

Alexandre Koyré, From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe

 

Section 3.1   The Purpose of Theories

 

(William Thomson) Lord Kelvin, Notes of Lectures on Molecular Dynamics and the Wave Theory of Light, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1884.

Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery

Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations

A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World

 

3.2   The problem of change: Atomism

 

Patricia Curd, The Legacy of Parmenides: Eleatic Monism and later Presocratic Thought, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Lucretius, On the Nature of the Universe

Alba Papa-Grimaldi, "Why mathematical solutions of Zeno's paradoxes miss the point: Zeno's one and many relation and Parmenides' prohibition," Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 50, pages 299-314 (1996)

 

3.3   Theories of Vision

 

A. C. Crombie, "Expectation, Modelling and Assent in the History of Optics: Part I, Alhazen and the Medieval Tradition," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 21, pages 605-632 (1990); reprinted in Science, Art and Nature

David C. Lindberg, Theories of Vision

David Park, The Fire within the Eye: A Historical Essay on the Nature and Meaning of Light, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997. 

Ptolemy, Ptolemy's Theory of Visual Perception: An English Translation of the Optics with Introduction and Commentary by A. Mark Smith, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1996 (Transactions, 86 [2])

A, Mark Smith, "Ptolemy, Alhazen, and Kepler and the problem of optical images," Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, Vol. 8, pages 9-44 (1998); "The physiological and psychological grounds of Ptolemy's visual theory: Some methodological considerations," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 34, pages 231-246 (1998)

Arthur Zajonc, Catching the Light

 

Section 3.4  Criteria for a good theory in physical science

 

Henry H. Bauer, Beyond Velikovsky: The History of a Public Controversy, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984.

P. W. Bridgman, Reflections of a Physicist, second edition, New York: Philosophical Library, 1955.

Albert Einstein, "Autobiographical Notes"

Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman, "Concerning the existence of alkaline earth metals resulting from the neutron irradiation of uranium" (in German), Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 27, page 11 (1939); English translation in The Discovery of Nuclear Fission (edited by H. G. Graetzer and D. L. Anderson), pages 44-47, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1971.

Max Planck, Philosophy of Physics, New York: Norton, 1936. 

 

Chapter 4   Kepler's laws

 

E. J. Aiton, "Johannes Kepler in the light of recent research," History of Science, Vol. 14, pages 77-100 (1976).

J. V. Field, Kepler's Geometrical Cosmology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Job Kozhamthadam, The Discovery of Kepler's Laws: The Interaction of Science, Philosophy, and Religion, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

Bruce Stephenson, Kepler's Physical Astronomy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

 

Section 4.1   The life of Kepler

 

Kepler's Dream, translated by P. F. Kirkwood, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965.  Probably the first recognizably-modern science fiction novel. 

 

Section 4.2   Kepler's First Law

 

Brian S. Baigrie, "The justification of Kepler's ellipse," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 21 (1990), pages 633-664

W. H. Donahue, "Kepler's first thoughts on oval orbits: Text, translation, and commentary," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 24, pages 71-100 (1993)

Owen Gingerich, "The computer versus Kepler," American Scientist, Vol. 52, pages 218-226 (1964).  The numerical problems involved in calculating the orbit of Mars are attacked by modern methods, with surprising results.

Section 4.3   Kepler's Second Law

 

E. J. Aiton, "Kepler's second law of planetary motion," Isis, Vol. 60, pages 75-90 (1969)

A. E. L. Davis, "Kepler's 'Distance Law' -- myth not reality," and three other papers on Kepler, Centaurus, Vol. 35, pages 103-191.

W. H. Donahue, "Kepler's invention of the second planetary law," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 27, pages 89-102 (1994)

 

Section 4.4   Kepler's Third Law

 

Johannes Kepler, Harmony of the World.

Johannes Kepler, New Astronomy, translated by W. H. Donahue, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Bruce Stephenson, The Music of the Heavens: Kepler's Harmonic Astronomy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

 

Section 4.5   Kepler's Theory of Vision

 

George Berkeley, An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision (1709), in his Philosophical Works, including the Works on Vision, Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1975.

Edwin G. Boring, Sensation and Perception in the History of Experimental Psychology, New York: Appleton-Century, 1942.

A. C. Crombie, "Expectation, Modelling and Assent in the History of Optics -- II.  Kepler and Descartes," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 22, pages 89-115 (1991); reprinted in his Science, Art and Nature.

D. B. Klein, A History of Scientific Psychology, New York: Basic Books, 1970, Chapter 16

David Lindberg, Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

A. Mark Smith, "Ptolemy, Alhazen, and Kepler and the problem of optical images," Arabic Sciences and Philosophy: A Historical Journal, Vol. 8, pages 9-44 (1998)

Stephen Straker, "Kepler, Tycho, and the 'Optical Part of Astronomy':  The genesis of Kepler's theory of pinhole images," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 24, pages 267-293 (1981).

George M. Stratton, "Some preliminary experiments on vision without inversion of the retinal image," Psychological Review, Vol. 3, pages 611-617 (1896); "Vision without inversion of the retinal image," Psychological Review, Vol. 4, pages 341-360, 463-481 (1897)

 

Section 4.6  The new concept of physical law

 

Wilbur Applebaum, "Keplerian astronomy after Kepler: Researches and Problems," History of Science, Vol. 34, pages 451-504 (1996)

Bernard R. Goldstein, "What's new in Kepler's new astronomy," in The Cosmos of Science (edited by John Earman and John D. Norton), pages 3-23.  Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.

N. R. Hanson, "The Copernican disturbance and the Keplerian revolution," Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 22, pages 169-184 (1961); Constellations and Conjectures, pages 251-282

Johannes Kepler, Mysterium Cosmographicum, second edition, translated by A. M. Duncan with introduction and commentary by E. J. Aiton, Preface by I. B. Cohen, New York: Abaris Books, 1981.

Johannes Kepler in seiner Briefen (edited by Max Caspar and Walter von Dyck), Munich & Berlin: Oldenbourg, 1930.

Alexandre Koyré, From the Closed World, Chapter III

 

Chapter 5   Galileo and the new astronomy

 

Peter Machamer (editor), The Cambridge Companion to Galileo, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998, articles by Machamer, W. A. Wallace, W. Shea, N. M. Swerdlow, E. McMullin, M. Segre

Jean Dietz Moss, Novelties in the Heavens: Rhetoric and Science in the Copernican Controversy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

 

Section 5.1   The Life of Galileo

 

Mario Biagioli, Galileo, Courtier.  The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Stillman Drake, Galileo Studies: Personality, Tradition, and Revolution, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1970.

Stillman Drake, Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Ludovico Geymonat, Galileo Galilei

Vincenzo Viviani, Racconto Istorico della Vita di Galileo Galilei, 1717; reprinted as Vita di Galileo, Milano: Rizzoli, 1954.  For another translation of the passage quoted in the text see Drake, Galileo at Work.

Michael White, Galileo Galilei, Astronomer, Woodbridge: Blackbirth Press, 1999.

 

Section 5.2  The telescopic evidence for the Copernican system

 

Harold I. Brown, "Galileo on the telescope and the eye," Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 46, pages 487-501 (1985)

Stillman Drake, Telescope, Tides, and Tactics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Samuel Y. Edgerton, Jr., "Galileo, Florentine 'Disegno' and the 'strange spottednesse' of the Moon," Art Journal, Vol. 44, pages 225-232 (1984)  Asserts "a clear case of cause and effect between the practice of Italian Renaissance art and the development of modern experimental science."

Galileo Galilei, Discoveries and Opinions

Kepler's Conversation with Galileo's Sidereal Messenger, translated by E. Rosen, New York: Johnson Reprint, 1965.

Eileen Reeves, Painting the Heavens: Art and Science in the Age of Galileo, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.  On the response of artists to Galileo's description of the moon; many Catholics associated the moon with the "immaculate conception" of Mary, and therefore rejected Galileo's portrayal of it as a rough, impure body.   

Wade L. Robison, "Galileo on the Moons of Jupiter," Annals of Science, Vol. 31, pages 165-169 (1974)

W. R. Shea, "The Revelations of the Telescope," Nuncius, Vol. 11, pages 507-526 (1996)

Francesco Sizzi, Dianoia Astronomica, Optica et Physica, Venice, 1611. See Drake, Telescope (cited above) and Galileo Studies, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1970, chapter 9. 

Engel Sluiter, "The telescope before Galileo," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 28, pages 223-234 (1997).

R. S. Westfall, "Science and Patronage: Galileo and the telescope," Isis, Vol. 76, pages 11-30 (1985)

 

Section 5.3  Toward a physical basis for the heliocentric system

 

P. Ariotti, "From the top to the foot of a mast on a moving ship," Annals of Science, Vol. 28, pages 191-203 (1972)

Aristotle, On the Heavens

Stillman Drake, "Galileo's experimental confirmation of horizontal inertia: Unpublished manuscripts (Galileo Gleanings XXII)," Isis, Vol. 64, pages 291-305 (1973)

Galileo Galilei, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems

Galileo Galilei on Motion and on Mechanics, translated by I. E. Drabkin and S. Drake, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1960.

Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences

Galileo on the World Systems: A New Abridged Translation and Guide, translated and annotated by M. A. Finocchiaro, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Jean Dietz Moss, Novelties in the Heavens: Rhetoric and Science in the Copernican Controversy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Michael Wolff, "Impetus mechanics as a physical argument for Copernicanism: Copernicus, Benedetti, Galileo," Science in Context, Vol. 1, pages 215-256 (1987).

 

Section 5.4   Science and Freedom

 

Richard J. Blackwell, Galileo, Bellarmine, and the Bible, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1991.

Maurice Finocchiaro, The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Galileo, "Letter to Madame Christina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Concerning the Use of Biblical Quotations in Matters of Science, 1615" in Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo, translated by S. Drake, pages 173-216

Pietro Redondi, Galileo Heretic, translated by R. Rosenthal, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.  Argues that the real reason for the Church's attack on Galileo was his support for the atomic theory, which undermined the basic assumptions of the Eucharist.

John L. Russell, "Catholic astronomers and the Copernican system after the condemnation of Galileo," Annals of Science, Vol. 46, pages 365-386 (1989). 

Michael Segre, "Redondi's theory and new perspectives on Galilean studies," Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, Vol 40 (1990), pages 3-10

Michael Segre, "Light on the Galileo case?"  Isis, Vol. 88, pages 484-504 (1997). 

William A. Wallace (ed.), Reinterpreting Galileo, Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1986.

Richard S. Westfall, "The Trial of Galileo: Bellarmino, Galileo, and the clash of two worlds," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 20, pages 1-23 (1989)

Richard S. Westfall, Essays on the Trial of Galileo, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1990.

 

Chapter 6  Mathematics and the Description of Motion

 

A. C. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science  Vol. II, Chapter I

Peter Dear, Discipline and Experience: The Mathematical Way in the Scientific Revolution, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

René Dugas, History of Mechanics, Part II, Chapter IV

A. Rupert Hall, The Revolution in Science, Chapter 4

 

Section 6.1   Descartes

 

René Descartes, Discourse on Method, Optics, Geometry, and Meteorology (1637), translated by P. J. Olscamp, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965. (The famous "Discourse on Method" was originally published as an introduction to the three other works; "Geometry" contains the methods of analytic geometry.)

René Descartes, Principles of Philosophy, translated by V. R. Miller and R. P. Miller, Boston: Reidel, 1983.

Stephen Gaukroger, Descartes: An Intellectual Biography, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Emily R. Grosholz, Cartesian Method and the Problem of Reduction, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

 

Section 6.5  Acceleration

 

Stillman Drake, "Uniform acceleration, space, and time," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 5, pages 21-43 (1970);  "The uniform motion equivalent to a uniformly accelerated motion from rest," Isis, Vol.63, pages 28-38 (1972)

 

Chapter 7   Galileo and the kinematics of free fall

 

Section 7.1  Introduction

 

Stillman Drake and I. E. Drabkin, Mechanics in Sixteenth Century Italy: Selections from Tartaglia, Benedetti, Guido Ubaldo and Galileo, translated and annotated, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969

A. Rupert Hall, The Revolution in Science, Chapter 4

Edward Grant, "Bradwardine and Galileo: equality of velocities in the void," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 2, pages 344-364 (1962-66); The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Wallace Hooper, "Inertial problems in Galileo's preinertial framework," in Cambridge Companion to Galileo (edited by P. Machamer), pages 146-174

Alexandre Koyré, Documentary History of the Problem of Fall from Kepler to Newton, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1955

Alexandre Koyré, Metaphysics and Measurement,

Dudley Shapere, Galileo: A Philosophical Study, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.

 

7.2  Aristotelian physics

 

Aristotle,  On the Heavens, Book I, Chapter 6

Aristotle, Physics, translated by Robin Waterfield, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Barry M. Casper, "Galileo and the fall of Aristotle: A case of historical injustice?" American Journal of Physics, Vol. 45, pages 325-330  (1977) 

Marshall Clagett, The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959.

A. C. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor Books,  paperback, Vol. II, pages 121-166

John Donne, "An Anatomy of the World, The First Anniversary" (1611),  in Complete Poetry and Selected Prose, New York: Modern Library, 1952.

F. S. Taylor,  A Short History of Science and Scientific Thought, New York: Norton, 1963.

William Wallace, "The enigma of Domingo de Soto: Uniformiter difformis and falling bodies in late medieval physics," Isis, Vol. 59, pages 384-401 (1968)

 

7.3  Galileo's Two New Sciences

 

Stillman Drake, "Uniform acceleration, space, and time," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 5, pages 21-43 (1970)

Stillman Drake, Galileo Studies, Personality, Tradition, and Revolution, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1970.

Galileo Galilei, On Motion and On Mechanics, translated by I. E. Drabkin and S. Drake, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1960; Two New Sciences

W. C. Humphreys, "Galileo, falling bodies, and inclined planes. An attempt at reconstructing Galileo's discovery of the law of squares," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 3, pages 225-244 (1967)

Peter Machamer et al., "Galileo and science education" (special issue) Science & Education, Vol. 8, no. 2 (1999)

A. G. Molland, "The Atomisation of Motion: A Facet of the Scientific Revolution," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Vol. 13, pages 31-54 (1982).

R. H. Naylor, "Galileo's Experimental Discourse," in The Uses of Experiment, edited by D. Gooding et al., pages 117-134, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 

Dimitris A. Sardelis, "The Law of Free Fall: Myth and Historical Reality," Fundamenta Scientia, Vol. 2, pages 163-183 (1981).

Thomas B. Settle, "An Experiment in the History of Science," Science, Vol. 133, pages 19-23 (1961); "On Normal and Extraordinary Science," Vistas in Astronomy, Vol. 17, pages 105-111 (1975);  "Galileo and Early Experimentation," in Springs of Scientific Discovery, edited by R. Aris et al., pages 3-20, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983

Ian Wereley, "Galileo's Argument on Free Fall," The Physics Teacher, Vol. 26, Pages 394-395 (1988). 

 

 

Chapter 8  Projectile Motion

 

René Dugas, Mechanics in the 17th Century, Chapters I‑IV, and the first part of Chapter XV

Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences (Fourth Day)

A. Rupert Hall, From Galileo to Newton 1630-1720

 

Chapter 9  Newton's Laws of Motion

 

D. Gjertsen, The Newton Handbook

Isaac Newton, Opticks, London, 4th edition 1730, reprinted by Dover, New York, 1952. The famous Queries at the end of Book Three include many of Newton's speculations on the nature of matter, force, and light.

Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents, edited by I. B. Cohen et al., Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958.

Newton's Philosophy of Nature

Newton's Unpublished Scientific Papers, edited by A. R. and M. B. Hall, London: Cambridge University Press, 1962.

C. Truesdell, "Reactions of Late Baroque Mechanics to Success, Conjecture, Error, and Failure in Newton's Principia," in his book Essays in the History of Mechanics, pages 138-183

 

9.1    Science in the Seventeenth Century

 

Joseph Ben-David, The Scientist's Role in Society: A Comparative Study, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

 

9.2    Newton's Life

 

A. Rupert Hall, Isaac Newton: Adventurer in Thought, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Frank Manuel, A Portrait of Isaac Newton, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968.

Isaac Newton, The Correspondence of Isaac Newton, edited by H. W. Turnbull et al., New York: Cambridge University Press, 1959-1977.

Richard S. Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

 

9.3    Newton's Principia

 

J. B. Barbour, Absolute or Relative Motion?  A Study from a Machian Point of View of the Discovery and Structure of Dynamical Theories, Part 1: The Discovery of Dynamics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

I. B. Cohen, Introduction to Newton's Principia

I. B. Cohen, The Newtonian Revolution

Dana Densmore, Newton's Principia

René Dugas, History of Mechanics, Chapter VI

René Dugas, Mechanics in the 17th Century, Chapters XI and XII

Herman Erlichson, "Evidence that Newton used the calculus to discover some propositions in his Principia," Centaurus, Vol. 39, pages 253-266 (the propositions pertain to resistive forces)

Alexandre Koyré, From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe, Chapters VII, IX, XI

Alexandre Koyré, Newtonian Studies

R. P. Feynman et al., "Newton's laws of dynamics," in The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1963, Vol. 1,

Chapter 9

John Herivel, The Background to Newton's Principia: A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664-84, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.

Isaac Newton, Principia

Robert Rynasiewicz, "By their properties, causes and effects: Newton;s scholium on time, space, place and motion," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 26, pages 133-153, 295-321 (1995)

 

Section 9.5  Newton's Second Law of Motion

 

François De Gandt, Force and Geometry in Newton's Principia, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995. 

Max Jammer, Concepts of Force, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957

Max Jammer, Concepts of Mass, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961. 

Ernst Mach, The Science of Mechanics, pages 226-342

M. R. Perl, "Newton's justification of the laws of motion," Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 27, pages 585-592 (1966)

Loup Verlet, "'F = MA' and the Newtonian Revolution," History of Science, Vol. 34, pages 303-346 (1996).

R. S. Westfall, Force in Newton's Physics, New York: American Elsevier, 1971.

 

Section 9.9   Inertial and gravitational mass

 

Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld, The Evolution of Physics from early Concepts to Relativity and Quanta, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966.

 

Section 9.11  Newton's Third Law of Motion

 

R. W. Home, "The third law in Newton's mechanics," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 4, pages 39-51 (1968)

 

Chapter 10   Rotational Motion

 

Section 10.4  The Earth's centripetal acceleration and absolute distances in the solar system

 

Albert Van Helden, Measuring the Universe, Chapters 12-14

 

Chapter 11  Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

 

Arthur Berry, A Short History of Astronomy, New York: Dover, 1961, Chapters VIII-XIII

I. Bernard Cohen, "Newton, Isaac," in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (edited by Gillispie), Vol. 10, pages 42-101; "Newton's determination of the masses and densities of the Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Earth," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 53, pages 83-95 (1998)

D. Gjertsen, The Newton Handbook, A collection of summaries of various aspects of Newton's work and short biographies of people who influenced or were influenced by him.

Alexandre Koyré, Newtonian Studies

 

Section 11.1   Derivation of the Law of Universal Gravitation

 

J. Bruce Brackenridge, The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

S. Chandrasekhar, Newton's Principia for the Common Reader, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

I. B. Cohen, An Introduction to Newton's Principia

Dana Densmore, Newton's Principia

René Dugas, Mechanics in the 17th Century, Chapter XVIII

Isaac Newton, The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

F. G. Watson, Between the Planets, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, revised edition 1956.

F. L. Whipple, Earth, Moon and Planets, new edition, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

 

Section 11.3   The Cavendish Experiment

 

G. T. Gillies, "Resource Letter MNG-1: Measurements of Newtonian Gravitation," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 58, pages 525-534 (1990)

David Kerstenbaum, "Gravity Measurements Close in on Big G," Science, Vol. 282, pages 2080-2081 (1998).  A review of recent estimates of the gravitational constant.  For details and references see the article by J. P. Schwartz et al. starting on page 2230 of the same issue. 

Joshua P. Schwarz, Douglas S. Robertson, Timothy M. Niebauer, and James G. Faller, "A free-fall determination of the Newtonian constant of gravity," Science, Vol. 282, pages 2230-2234 (1998).  Their value is G = (6.6873 ± 0.0094) x 10-11 m3 kg-1 sec-2.

 

Section 11.4  The masses of the earth, sun, and planets

 

The Astronomical Almanac for the year 2000, Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office/London: The Stationery Office, 1999.

 

Section 11.5  Some influences on Newton's work

 

J. E. McGuire, Tradition and Innovation: Newton's Metaphysics of Nature, Boston: Kluwer, 1995.

J. E. McGuire and P. M. Rattansi, "Newton and the 'pipes of Pan,'" Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 21, pages 108-143 (1966)

Robert Merton, On the Shoulders of Giants, New York: Free Press, 1965.

 

Section 11.6  Some consequences of the law of universal gravitation

 

Shinko Aoki, "The moon-test in Newton's Principia: Accuracy of inverse-square law of universal gravitation," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 44, pages 147-190 (1992); Vol. 49, pages 393-396 (1996)

Robert Grant, History of Physical Astronomy, New York: Johnson Reprint, 1966.  Though first published in 1852, this book remains a useful detailed account of the development of theories of planetary motion in the 17th and 18th centuries.

J. L. Greenberg, The Problem of the Earth's Shape from Newton to Clairaut, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Michael Hoskin, William Herschel and the Construction of the Heavens, New York: Norton, 1964.

N. Murray and M. Holman, "The origin of chaos in the outer solar system," Science, Vol. 283, pages 1877-1881 (1999).  Contrary to Laplace, Newtonian gravitation does not entail the long-term stability of the solar system; resonances between Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus produce chaotic motion, and Uranus may be expelled from the solar system in about 1018 years.

René Taton and C. Wilson, editors, The General History of Astronomy, Vol. 2, Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics, Part B, The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.  A collection of authoritative brief articles on several of the applications of Newton's theory of gravity.

Curtis A. Wilson, "The Great Inequality of Jupiter and Saturn: From Kepler to Laplace," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 33, pages 15-290 (1985)

 

Section 11.7   The discovery of new planets using Newton's theory of gravity

 

Greg Bamford, "Popper and his commentators on the discovery of Neptune: A close shave for the law of gravitation?" Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 27, pages 207-232 (1996).  If Neptune had not been discovered should (according to Popper's Principle) the law of gravitation have been abandoned?

Morton Grosser, The Discovery of Neptune, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962.

W. G. Hoyt, Planets X and Pluto, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1980.

Oliver Lodge, Pioneers of Science

 

Section 11.8   Bode's Law

 

M. M. Nieto, The Titius-Bode Law of Planetary Distances: Its History and Theory, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1972

 

Section 11.9   Gravity and the galaxies

 

Russell McCormmach, "John Michell and Henry Cavendish: weighing the stars," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 4, pages 126-155 (1968)

Ian Ridpath, A Dictionary of Astronomy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

 

11.11   Newton's Place in Modern Science

 

I. B. Cohen, The Newtonian Revolution

Margaret Jacob, "Reflections on the ideological meanings of modern science from Boyle and Newton to the postmodernists," History of Science, Vol. 33, pages 333-357 (1995)

H. Odom, "The estrangement of celestial mechanics and religion," Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 27, pages 533-548 (1966)

J. H. Randall, Jr., The Career of Philosophy, New York: Columbia University Press, 1962. Volume 1, Book 4, discusses Newton's influence on eighteenth-century thought; The Making of the Modern Mind, New York: Columbia University Press, 1976.

Paul Theerman and Adele F. Seeff (editors), Action and Reaction, Proceedings of a Symposium to Commemorate the Tercentenary of Newton's Principia, Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1993.

 

Chapter 12  On the Nature of Concepts

 

Section 12.2  Science and Nonscience

 

Johannes Kepler, Harmony of the World

 

Section 12.3  The Lack of a Single Method

 

Ludwig Boltzmann, Gustav Kirchhoff: Festrede zur Feier des 301. Gründungstages der Karl-Franzens-Universität zu Graz, Leipzig: Barth, 1888 (translation quoted from E. Broda, Ludwig Boltzmann, Woodbridge, CT: Ox Bow Press, 1983)

Charles Darwin, Autobiography and Selected Letters (edited by F. Darwin), New York: Dover, 1958.

George Sarton, The Study of the History of Science

 

Section 12.4  Physical Concepts: Measurement and Definition

 

P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics

 

Section 12.5  Physically Meaningless Concepts and Statements

 

P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics

Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences

Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery

 

Section 12.6  Primary and Secondary Quantities

 

Francis Bacon, The New Organon [Novum Organum] and related Writings, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1960. 

James Bryant Conant, Science and Common Sense

 

Section 12.8  Explanation

 

Galileo Galilei, Discoveries and Opinions

Isaac Newton, Principia

 

Chapter 13   On the duality and growth of science

 

Section 13.1  The Free License of Creativity

 

Albert Einstein, "Autobiographical Notes"

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, "Electrical Units of Measurement" (lecture given in 1883), in Popular Lectures and Addresses, Vol. 1, second edition, pages 80-143, London: Macmillan, 1891.

 

Section 13.4  Motivation

 

Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences

Isaac Newton, Opticks

Newton's Philosophy of Nature (edited by H. S. Thayer)

Wolfgang Pauli, Exclusion Principle and Quantum Mechanics, lecture given in Stockholm after the award of the Nobel Prize of Physics, 1945, Neuchatel, Switzerland: Editions du Griffon, 1947.

Henri Poincaré, Science and Method

Alfred North Whitehead, Modes of Thought, New York: Macmillan, 1938.

 

Section 13.7  How science grows

 

Jonathan Cole and Stephen Cole, "The Ortega Hypothesis," Science, Vol. 178, pages 368-375 (1972)

José Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses, translated by A. Kerrigan, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985.

 

Section 13.8  Consequences of the model

 

I. Bernard Cohen, Science and the Founding Fathers, New York: Norton, 1995.

Robert K. Merton, "Singletons and Multiples in Scientific Discovery" 

F. S. C. Northrop, The Meeting of East and West, New York: Macmillan, 1946, Chapter III

Harold Varmus, Plenary Lecture at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 13 February 1998.  Text available on the Website of the National Institutes of Health, http://www.nih.gov/welcome/directorcongress/htm

 

Chapter 14  The Discovery of Laws

 

P. W. Bridgman,  Reflections of a Physicist, New York: Philosophical Library, 1950.

P. W. Bridgman, Philosophical Writings (reprint of Nature of Physical Theory and The Nature of some of our Physical Concepts), New York: Arno Press, 1980.

S. G. Brush, "Dynamics of Theory Change: The Role of Predictions," in PSA 1994: Proceedings of the 1994 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, volume 2, edited by D. Hull et al., East Lansing, MI: Philosophy of Science Association, 1995, pages 133-145.

Pierre Duhem, Aim and Structure of Physical Theory

Albert Einstein, Collected Papers

Albert Einstein, Relativity

Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions 

Peter Galison, How Experiments End

N. R. Hanson, Patterns of Discovery, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1958.

David L. Hull, Peter D. Tessner, and Arthur M. Diamond, "Planck's Principle," Science, vol. 202, pages 717-723 (1978). 

Thomas S. Kuhn, Structure of Scientific Revolutions

L. Laudan, "Theories of scientific method from Plato to Mach," History of Science, Vol. 7, pages 1-63 (1969)

L. Laudan, Science and Hypothesis: Historical Essays on Scientific Methodology, Boston: Reidel, 1981.

John Losee, A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, third edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Ernst Mach, "On the economical nature of physical inquiry," pages 186-213 in his Popular Scientific Lectures

Robert K. Merton, "Singletons and Multiples in Scientific Discovery" 

Max Planck, Scientific Autobiography

Plato, Phaedon 

Henri Poincaré, The Value of Science

Henri Poincaré, Science and Hypothesis

Henri Poincaré, Mathematics and Science: Last Essays, translated by J. W. Bolduc, New York: Dover, 1963.

Karl Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery  

Joseph Priestley, Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air, New York: Kraus Reprint, 1970

Lewis Pyenson, "Without Feathers," Lingua Franca, vol. 9, no. 4 (May-June 1999), pages 5, 73. 

Bertrand Russell, Scientific Outlook, New York: W. W. Norton, 1931; Chapters II and III

M. H. Salmon et al., Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1992.

Michael Turelli, "The Causes of Haldane's Rule," Science, vol. 282, pages 889-891 (1998).

Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty and Clifford R. Mynatt, editors, On Scientific Thinking, New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.  Studies by psychologists show that both scientists and non-scientists prefer to look for confirmation of their hypotheses, even though a strategy of eliminating alternative hypotheses by refutation is more effective in simple situations; scientists who persistently advocate their own ideas while ignoring contrary evidence are criticized by other scientists for this behavior, yet they are also judged the most successful. 

J. Ziman, Public Knowledge, an Essay Concerning the Social dimension of Science, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1968

 

Chapter 15   The Law of Conservation of Mass

 

Section 15.1   Prelude to the conservation law

 

Lucretius,  On the Nature of the Universe

 

Section 15.3   Lavoisier's experimental proof

 

J. B. Conant, The Overthrow of the Phlogiston Theory, Case 2 in the Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science (edited by J. B. Conant)

J. B. Conant, Science and Common Sense, Chapter 7

Arthur Donovan (editor), "The Chemical Revolution: Essays in Reinterpretation," Osiris, series 2, Vol. 4 (1988), articles by Donovan, F. L. Holmes, and C. E. Perrin  

Henry Guerlac, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier: Chemist and Revolutionary, New York: Scribner's, 1975.

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, Elements of Chemistry in a new systematic order, containing all the modern discoveries, translated by Robert Kerr, New York, Dover, 1965.

Evan Melhado, "Chemistry, Physics, and the Chemical Revolution," Isis, vol. 76, pages 195-211 (1983).

Alan Musgrave, "Why did Oxygen supplant Phlogiston?  Research Programmes in the Chemical Revolution," in Method and Appraisal in the Physical Sciences (edited by C. Howson), pages 181-209

Jean-Pierre Poirier, Lavoisier: Chemist, Biologist, Economist, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

P. Pomper, "Lomonosov and the discovery of the law of conservation of matter in chemical transformations," Ambix, Vol. 10, pages 119-127 (1962)

Cecil J. Schneer, Mind and Matter

Charles Singer, A Short History of Science, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1941.

J. Smedslund, "The acquisition of conservation of substance and weight in children: I. Introduction," Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 2, pages 11-20, 85-87 (1961), reprinted in Readings in Child Behavior and Development (C. B. Stendler, editor), New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, second edition, 1964

 

Chapter 16   The Law of Conservation of Momentum

 

Thomas Birch, The History of the Royal Society of London, New York: Johnson Reprint, 1968, Volume 2

R. J. Blackwell, "Descartes' laws of motion," Isis, Vol. 57, pages 220-234 (1966)

René Descartes, Principles of Philosophy, translated by V. R. Miller and R. P. Miller, Boston: Kluwer, 1983

René Dugas, Mechanics in the Seventeenth Century, Chapters VII and X

A. Rupert Hall, "Mechanics and the Royal Society, 1668-70," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 3, pages 24-38 (1966)  

A. Rupert Hall, Revolution in Science, Chapter 11.

Ernst Mach, The Science of Mechanics, pages 376-420

C. Truesdell, "Whence the Law of Moment of Momentum?" in his book Essays on the History of Mechanics, pages 239-271

E. T. Whittaker, From Euclid to Eddington: A Study of Conceptions of the External World, New York: Dover, 1958

Joella G. Yoder, Unrolling Time: Christiaan Huygens

 

Chapter 17   The Law of Conservation of Energy

 

T. M. Brown, "Resource Letter EEC-1 on the Evolution of Energy Concepts from Galileo to Helmholtz," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 33, no. 10 (October 1965)

D. S. L. Cardwell, From Watt to Clausius

René Dugas, History of Mechanics, Part VI, Chapter X

Ernst Mach, The History and Root of the Principle of Conservation of Energy, translated from German, Chicago: Open Court Publishing Co., 1911

Ernst Mach, "On the principle of the conservation of energy," in his Popular Scientific Lectures

 

Section 17.1   Christiaan Huygens and the vis viva concept

 

Joella G. Yoder, Unrolling Time: Christiaan Huygens

 

Section 17.7  Historical Background of the Generalized Law of Conservation of Energy: The Nature of Heat

 

René Dugas,  Mechanics in the Seventeenth Century, Chapter XIV

S. C. Brown, Count Rumford: Physicist Extraordinary, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1962

S. C. Brown, Benjamin Thompson -- Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat, New York: Pergamon Press, 1967. Includes extracts from his writings.

S. G. Brush, "The wave theory of heat," in The Kind of Motion We Call Heat, Chapter 9

Yehuda Elkana, The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy, London: Hutchinson, 1974.

Erwin N. Hiebert, Historical Roots of the Principle of Conservation of Energy, Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1962.

Robert Fox, The Caloric Theory of Gases from Lavoisier to Regnault, New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

P. M. Heimann, "Conservation of Forces and the Conservation of Energy," Centaurus, Vol. 18, pages 147-161 (1974); "Helmholtz and Kant: The Metaphysical Foundations of Über die Erhaltung der Kraft," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 5, pages 205-238 (1974)

D. Roller, "The early developments of the concepts of temperature and heat: The rise and decline of the caloric theory" in J. B. Conant (editor), Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science, pages 117-214

 

Section 17.8  Mayer's discovery of energy conservation

 

K. L. Caneva, Robert Mayer and the Conservation of Energy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Eduard Farber, "The color of venous blood," Isis, Vol. 45, pages 3-9 (1954)

W. B. Ober, "Robert Mayer, M. D. (1814-1878) and mechanical equivalent of heat," New York State Journal of Medicine, Vol. 68, pp. 2447-2454 (1968).

P. M. Heimann, "Mayer's Concept of 'Force': The 'Axis' of a New Science of Physics," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 7, pages 277-296 (1976)

Robert Mayer, "The Forces of Inorganic Nature" (1842), translation reprinted in Brush, Kinetic Theory, vol. 1, pages 71-77

 

Section 17.9   Joule's experiments on energy conservation

 

Fabio Bevilacqua, "Helmholtz's Über die Erhaltung der Kraft: The emergence of a theoretical physicist," in Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science (edited by D. Cahan), Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.

Per Dahl, Ludvig Colding and the Conservation of Energy Principle, New York: Johnson Reprint, 1972; includes a translation of Colding's original papers (1850-1864).  He was one of the "simultaneous discoverers" of LCE.

J. Forrester, "Chemistry and the Conservation of Energy: The Work of James Prescott Joule," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 6, pages 273-313 (1975)

Hermann von Helmholtz, "The Conservation of Force" (1847), translation reprinted in S. G. Brush, Kinetic Theory, vol. 1, pages 89-110

T. S. Kuhn, "Energy conservation as an example of simultaneous discovery," in his book Essential Tension, pages 66-104

Robert K. Merton, "Singletons and Multiples in Scientific Discovery," "Behavior patterns of scientists," and other papers reprinted in his book Sociology of Science

Otto Sibum, "Reworking the mechanical value of heat: Instruments of precesion and gestures of accuracy in early Victorian England," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 26, pages 73-106 (1995)

Crosbie Smith, The Science of Energy: A Cultural History of Energy Physics in Victorian Britain, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

H. J. Steffens, James Prescott Joule and the Concept of Energy, New York: Science History Pubs., 1979.

John Tyndall, Heat Considered as a Mode of Motion, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1863; seventh edition, 1887.

 

Section 17.5  The conservation law, first form; and applications

 

J. V. Kline, "The Case of the Counting Balls"  American Journal of Physics, Vol. 28, page 102 (1960)

 

Section 17.11 Conservation laws and symmetry

 

Nina Byers, "The Life and Times of Emmy Noether: Contributions of Emmy Noether to Particle Physics," pages 945-964 in History of Original Ideas and Basic Discoveries in Particle Physics (edited by H. B. Newman and T. Ypsilantis), New York: Plenum Press, 1996; "E. Noether's discovery of the deep connection between symmetries and conservation laws," pages 67-91 in The Heritage of Emmy Noether (edited by M. Teicher), Ramat-Gan, Israel: Bar-Ilan University, 1999, and other papers in this book.

 

Chapter 18    The Law of Dissipation of Energy

 

S. G. Brush, History of Modern Planetary Physics, Vol. 2, Part 1.

S. G. Brush, Kind of Motion We Call Heat, Chapter 14

S. G. Brush, The Temperature of History, New York: Franklin, 1978, Chapters III, V, VIII

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, "The Kinetic Theory of the Dissipation of Energy" (1874), reprinted in Kinetic Theory (edited by Brush), Vol. 2, pages 176-187

 

Section 18.1   Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian World Machine"

 

H. G. Alexander (editor), The Leibniz‑Clarke correspondence, with extracts from Newton's Principia and Opticks, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

Edward B. Davis, "Newton's rejection of the 'Newtonian World View': The role of Divine Will in Newton's natural philosophy," in Facets of Faith and Science (edited by J. M. van der Meer), Vol. 3, pages 75-96, Lanham, MD: University Press of American, 1996.  

Augustus de Morgan, A Budget of Paradoxes, second edition, Chicago: Open Court, 1915.

A. Rupert Hall, Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Leibniz, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Alexandre Koyré, From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe, Chapter XI

Alexandre Koyré and I. B. Cohen, "Newton and the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence," Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, Vol. 15, no. 58-59, pages 63-126 (1962)

Ezio Vailati, Leibniz and Clarke: A Study of their Correspondence, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

 

 

Section 18.2   The Problem of the Cooling of the Earth

 

Joe D. Burchfield, Lord Kelvin and the Age of the Earth, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Francis C. Haber, The Age of the World from Moses to Darwin, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1959.

I. Grattan-Guinness and J. R. Ravetz, Joseph Fourier 1768-1830, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1972.

John Herivel, Joseph Fourier: The Man and the Physicist, New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

William Hopkins, "Anniversary Address of the President," Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 8, Part I, pages xxi-lxxx (1852)

Rachel Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology: The Foundations of a Science, 1650-1830, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology, 3 vols., London: Murray, 1830-33

John Playfair, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth, Edinburgh: Cadell & Davies, 1802.  

L. G. Wilson, Charles Lyell. The Years to 1841: The Revolution in Geology, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972.

 

Section 18.3   The Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Dissipation of Energy

 

D. S. L. Cardwell, From Watt to Clausius

Sadi Carnot, Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, and Other Papers on the Second Law of Thermodynamics by E. Clapeyron and R. Clausius (edited by E. Mendoza), New York: Dover Publications, 1960.

Edward E. Daub, "Entropy and dissipation," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 2, pages 321-354 (1970).

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, "On a universal tendency in nature to the dissipation of mechanical energy," Philosophical Magazine, series 4, Vol. 4, pages 304-306 (1852)

Section 18.4   Entropy and the Heat Death

 

Henry Adams, The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma (essays first published 1894-1909),  New York: Capricorn Books (Putnam's), 1958.

Hermann von Helmholtz, "On the interaction of natural forces" (1854), in his Popular Scientific Lectures

Erwin Hiebert, "The uses and abuses of thermodynamics in religion," Daedalus, Vol. 95, pages 1046-1080 (1966)

Isaac Newton, Opticks

John Playfair, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth, Edinburgh: Cadell & Davies, 1802.

Crosbie Smith and M. Norton Wise, Energy and Empire, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1960.

C. Truesdell, The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1980.

 

Chapter 19   The Physics of Gases

 

S. G. Brush, Statistical Physics, pages 3-30

Lucretius, The Nature of the Universe

 

Section 19.2   Air pressure

 

Antonio Clericuzio, "The mechanical philosophy and the spring of the air: New light on Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke,"  Nuncius, Vol. 13, pages 69-75 (1998).

René Dugas, History of Mechanics, Part II, Chapter IV

René Dugas, Mechanics in the Seventeenth Century, Chapter VIII

Galileo Galileo, Two New Sciences

M. B. Hall (editor), Nature and Nature's Laws, pages 184‑ 215. Extracts from writings of Torricelli, Pecquet, and Boyle.

R. Hooykaas, Robert Boyle: A Study in Science and Christian Belief, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1997.

Michael Hunter (editor), Robert Boyle reconsidered, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994, includes a review of recent historical scholarship and a bibliography of works about Boyle published since 1940.

Isaac Newton, Principia

Isaac Newton, Opticks

Rose-Mary Sargent, The Diffident Naturalist: Robert Boyle and the Philosophy of Experiment, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

 

Section 19.3   The General Gas Law

 

I. B. Cohen, "Newton, Hooke, and 'Boyle's Law' (Discovered by Power and Towneley)," Nature, Vol. 204, page 618 (1964)

C. Webster, "The discovery of Boyle's law, and the concept of the elasticity of air in the seventeenth century," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 2, pages 441-502 (1965)

 

Section 19.4   Two gas models

 

Daniel Bernoulli, Hydrodynamics (1738), translated by T. Carmody and H. Kobus, New York: Dover, 1968.

C. Truesdell, "Early kinetic theories of gases," in his book Essays in the History of Mechanics, pages 272-304

 

Chapter 20  The Atomic Theory of Chemistry

 

A. J. Ihde, The Development of Modern Chemistry, New York: Harper & Row, 1964, Chapters 4 and 6

D. M. Knight, Atoms and Elements, a Study of Theories of Matter in England in the Nineteenth Century, London: Hutchinson, 1967.

J. R. Partington, A History of Chemistry, Vol. IV, London: Macmillan, 1964.

Alan J. Rocke, Chemical Atomism in the Nineteenth Century, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1984.

 

Section 20.2  Dalton's model of gases

 

Theron Cole, Jr., "Dalton, mixed gases, and the origin of the chemical atomic theory," Ambix, Vol. 25, pages 117-130 (1978)

L. K. Nash, "The origins of Dalton's chemical atomic theory," Isis, Vol. 47, pages 101-116 (1956)

A. L. Smyth, John Dalton, 1766-1844: A Bibliography of Works by and about Him, Brookfield, VT: Ashgatre 1998.

 

Section 20.3  Properties of Dalton's chemical atom

 

John Dalton, A New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808-1827), reprinted, London: Dawson, 1950.

Kiyosha Fujii, "The Berthollet-Proust controversy and Dalton's chemical atomic theory 1800-1820," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol 19, pages 177-200 (1986)

H. E. Roscoe and A. Harden, A New View of the Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theory, New York: Johnson Reprint, 1970.

Arnold Thackray, John Dalton, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.

 

Chapter 20.6   Dalton's rule of simplicity

 

A. J. Bernatowicz, "Dalton's rule of simplicity," Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 47, pages 577-579 (1970)

 

20.9  Avogadro's model of gases

 

Nicholas Fisher, "Avogadro, the chemists, and historians of chemistry," History of Science, Vol. 20, pages 77-102, 212-231 (1982)

 

20.10   An evaluation of Avogadro's theory

 

Martin Frické, "The rejection of Avogadro's hypotheses," in Method and Appraisal in the Physical Sciences (edited by C. Howson), pages 277-307

Mario Morselli, Amedeo Avogadro: A Scientific Biography, Boston: Reidel, 1984

 

20.11  Chemistry after Avogadro: The Concept of Valence

 

S. G. Brush, "Dynamics of theory change in chemistry: Part 1. The benzene problem" and " ... Part 2. Benzene and molecular orbitals, 1945-1980," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 30, pages 21-99, 263-302 (1999).

W. G. Palmer, A History of the Concept of Valency to 1930, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1965

 

Chapter 21    The Periodic Table of Elements   

 

Section 21.1  The search for regularity in the list of elements

 

O. Theodore Benfey, "Precursors and cocursors of the Mendeleev table: The Pythagorean spirit in element classification," Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, nos. 13-14, pages 60-66 (Winter/Spring 1992-1993)

H. Cassebaum and G. B. Kauffman, "The periodic system of the chemical elements: The search for its discoverer," Isis, vol. 62, pages 314-327 (1971).  On the other scientists besides Mendeléeff who might deserve some of the credit. 

Ida Freund, The Study of Chemical Composition, Chapter XVI

A. J. Ihde, The Development of Modern Chemistry, New York: Harper & Row, 1964, Chapter 9

D. M. Knight, ed., Classical Scientific Papers -- Chemistry (second series), New York: American Elsevier, 1971. A collection of original sources pertaining to Prout's hypothesis and the arrangement of the elements

John A. B. Newlands, "On the Periodic Law," Chemical News, Vol. 38, pages 106-107 (1878), reviews his priority claims

 

Section 21.1    The early periodic table of elements

 

Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent, "Mendeleev's periodic system of chemical elements," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 19, pages 3-17 (1986)

S. G. Brush, "The reception of Mendeleev's Periodic Law in America and Britain," Isis, Vol. 87, pages 595-628 (1996)

M. A. El'iashevich, "The Mendeleev periodic law, atomic spectra, and atomic structure: On the history of the physical interpretation of the periodic table of the elements," Soviet Physics Uspekhi, Vol. 13, pages 1-23 (1970).

D. I. Mendeléeff, The Principles of Chemistry, second English edition, New York: Collier, 1902.

Don C. Rawson, "The process of discovery: Mendeleev and the Periodic Law," Annals of Science, Vol. 31, pages 181-204 (1974)

S. Sambursky, "The equivalence of mass and energy: An anticipation by Mendeleev," Isis, Vol. 60, pages 104-106 (1969)

 

Section 21.4   The modern periodic table

 

Darleane Hoffman and Diana Lee, "Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements -- One Atom at a Time," Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 76, pages 331-347 (1999)

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances, "Atomic weights of the elements, 1995" (report prepared by T. B. Coplen), Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 26, pages 1239-1253 (1997).  A new report is usually published every two years in this journal. 

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Chemistry Division, Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, "Recommendations for the naming of elements of atomic numbers greater than 100," Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 51, pages 381-384 (1979); "Names and symbols of transfermium elements," Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 69, pages 2471-2473 (1997)

W. A. H. Scott, "Why stop there?" Education in Chemistry, Vol. 20, page 156 (1983).  Argues that the IUPAC system for naming elements with high atomic numbers should be extended to all elements.

J. W. von Spronsen, The Periodic System of Chemical Elements, New York: American Elsevier, 1969.

 

Chapter 22   The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

 

Ludwig Boltzmann, Lectures on Gas Theory (1896-1898), translated by S. G. Brush, New York: Dover, 1995.

S. G. Brush, Kinetic Theory, includes reprints and translations of papers of Clausius, Maxwell, Boltzmann, William Thomson, Poincare, Zermelo, and others

S. G. Brush, The Kind of Motion We Call Heat

Carlo Cercignani, Ludwig Boltzmann: The Man Who Trusted Atoms, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998

A. S. Eddington, The Nature of the Physical World, Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1928, Chapter IV

 

Section 22.1   Introduction

 

E. W. Garber, "Clausius and Maxwell's kinetic theory of gases," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 2, pages 299-319 (1970)

Eric Mendoza, "The kinetic theory of matter, 1845-1855," Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, Vol. 32, pages 184-220 (1982)

C. Truesdell, "Early kinetic theories of gases," in his Essays in the History of Mechanics, pages 272-304

 

Section 22.3   Model of a gas

 

Elizabeth Garber et al. (editors), Maxwell on Molecules and Gases, includes his papers on atoms, molecules, and kinetic theory, with related manuscripts and correspondence

Elizabeth Garber, Stephen G. Brush and C. W. F. Everitt (editors), Maxwell on Heat and Statistical Mechanics, Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1995, includes his papers on thermodynamics and Maxwell's Demon, with related manuscripts and correspondence

James Clerk Maxwell, Scientific Letters and Papers (edited by P. M. Harman)

 

Section 22.5   Consequences and verification of the kinetic theory

 

S. G. Brush (editor), Kinetic Theory, Vol. 3

W. Fleischhacker and T. Schönfield (editors), Pioneering Ideas for the Physical and Chemical Sciences: Josef Loschmidt's Contributions and Modern Developments in Structural Organic Chemistry, Atomistics, and Statistical Mechanics, New York: Plenum, 1997.

H. D. Smyth, A General Account of the Development of Methods of Using Atomic Energy for Military Purposes Under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940-1945, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1945.

 

22.6  The distribution of molecular velocities

 

James Clerk Maxwell, "Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases" (1860), reprinted with related documents and notes in Maxwell on Molecules and Gases (edited by E. Garber et al.); Letter to P. G. Tait (1867), and "[A Treatise on] The Kinetic Theory of Gases" (1877) [review of book by Watson], both reprinted with related documents and notes in Maxwell on Heat and Statistical Mechanics (edited by E. Garber, S. G. Brush, and C. W. F. Everitt), Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 1995.

C. C. Gillispie, "Intellectual factors in the background of analysis by probabilities," pages 431-453 in Scientific Change (edited by A. C. Crombie), New York, Basic Books, 1963

T. M. Porter, "A statistical survey of gases: Maxwell's social physics," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 12, pages 77-116 (1981)

 

Section 22.8   Specific heats of gases

 

Henk W. de Regt, "Philosophy and the kinetic theory of gases," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 47, pages 31-62 (1996)

 

22.9   The problem of irreversibility in kinetic theory: Maxwell's Demon

 

John Earman and John D. Norton, "Exorcist XIV: The wrath of Maxwell's Demon. Part II. From Szilard to Landauer and beyond," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, vol. 30, pages 1-40 (1999)

M. J. Klein, "Maxwell, his Demon, and the second law of thermodynamics," American Scientist, Vol. 58, pages 897 (1970)

H. S. Leff, "Resource Letter MD-1: Maxwell's Demon," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 58, pages 201-209 (1990)

Harvey S. Leff and Andrew F. Rex (editors), Maxwell's Demon: Entropy, Information, Computing, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1990.

B. McGuinness (editor), Ludwig Boltzmann: Theoretical Physics and Philosophical Problems, Boston: Reidel, 1974

 

Chapter 23   The Wave Theory of Light

 

Sidney Perkowitz, Empire of Light: A History of Discovery in Science and Art, New York: Holt, 1996

Alan E. Shapiro, Fits, Passions, and Paroxysms, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993; on light and spectroscopy to mid-19th-century

E. T. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, New York: Tomash/American Institute of Physics, 1987, Vol. I, Chapters I, IV and V

 

23.1  Theories of refraction and the speed of light

 

Arlie Bailey, "Units, Standards and Constants," in Twentieth Century Physics, edited by L. M. Brown et al., pages 1233-1278, Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1995. 

J. G. Burke, "Descartes on the refraction and the velocity of light," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 34, pages 390- 400 (1966)

I. B. Cohen, "Roemer and the first determination of the velocity of light," Isis, Vol. 31, pages 327379 (1940). Includes facsimile reprints of Roemer's papers; reprinted as a book, New York: Burndy Library, 1944.

I. B. Cohen, "The first explanation of interference," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 8, pages 99-106 (1940)

Rene Descartes, Discourse on method, Optics, Geometry and Meteorology, translated by P. J. Olscamp, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1961.

Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences

Casper Hakfoort, Optics in the Age of Euler: Conceptions of the Nature of Light, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

A. Rupert Hall, All was Light: An Introduction to Newton's Opticks, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Christiaan Huygens, Treatise on Light. In which are explained the causes of that which occurs In Reflexion, & in Refraction.  And particularly In the strange Refraction of Iceland Crystal, translated by S. P. Thompson, New York: Dover, 1962.

A. I. Sabra, Theories of light from Descartes to Newton, second edition, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Alan E. Shapiro, "Huygens' Traité de la lumière and Newton's Opticks: Pursuing and eschewing hypotheses," Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 43, pages 223-247 (1989)

F. R. Tangherlini, "On Snell's law and the gravitational deflection of light," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 36, pages 1001-1004 (1968)

Albert Van Helden, "Roemer's Speed of Light," Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 14, pages 137-141 (1983).  While Roemer did not give an explicit value for c in his 1676 paper, it appears that he believed the earth-sun distance to be about 56 million miles (contrary to Cassini's and Flamsteed's result) so the corresponding value for c would have been only about 85,000 mi/sec or 135,000 km/sec. 

Joella G. Yoder, Unrolling Time: Christiaan Huygens

 

Section 23.3   The wave theory of Young and Fresnel

 

Peter Achinstein, Particles and Waves: Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Science, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Max Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 3rd edition, New York: Pergamon Press, 1965.

Jed Z. Buchwald, The Rise of the Wave Theory of Light: Optical Theory and Experiment in the early Nineteenth Century, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Geoffrey N. Cantor, Optics after Newton: Theories of Light in Britain and Ireland, 1704-1840, Dover, NH: Manchester University Press, 1983.

G. N. Cantor and M. J. S. Hodge (eds.), Conceptions of Ether: Studies in the History of Ether Theories, 1740-1900, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.  See the editors' introduction and papers by P. M. Heimann, L. Laudan and J. Z. Buchwald

Xiang Chen, "Taxonomic Changes and the Particle-Wave Debate in Early Nineteenth-Century Britain," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 26, pages 252-271 (1995); "The Debate on the 'Polarity of Light' during the optical revolution," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 50, pages 359-393 (1997); "Dispersion, experimental apparatus, and the acceptance of the wave theory of light," Annals of Science, Vol. 55, pages 401-420 (1998)

Chris Eliasmith and Paul Thagard, "Waves, Particles, and Explanatory Coherence," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 48, pages 1-19 (1997)

Naum Kipnis, History of the Principle of Interference of Light, Boston: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1991.

John Worrall, "Fresnel, Poisson and the White Spot: The Role of Successful Predictions in the Acceptance of Scientific Theories," in The Uses of Experiment, edited by D. Gooding et al., pages 135-157, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

John Worrall, "Thomas Young and the 'refutation' of Newtonian Optics: A case study in the interaction of philosophy of science and history of science," in Methods and Appraisal (edited by C. Howson), pages 107-179

 

Section 23.4  Color

 

Isaac Newton, New Theory of Light and Colors (1672), reprinted from Philosophical Transactions, Munich: Fritsch, 1965; also reprinted in Isaac Newton's Papers & Letters on Natural Philosophy (edited by I. B. Cohen), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1958.

Isaac Newton, The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton, edited by Alan E. Shapiro, Vol. I, The Optical Lectures 1670-1672, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Simon Schaffer, "Glass works: Newton's Prisms and the Uses of Experiment," in The Uses of Experiment (edited by Gooding et al.), pages 67-104

Alan E. Shapiro, "The gradual acceptance of Newton's theory of light and color, 1672-1727," Perspectives on Science, Vol. 4, pages 59-140 (1996)

 

Chapter 24   Electrostatics

 

E. T. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, Vol. I, Chapters II and III

 

Section 24.1   Introduction

 

I. B. Cohen, Franklin and Newton, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1956.

Benjamin Franklin, Experiments and Observations on Electricity (edited by I. B. Cohen), Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1941.

J. L. Heilbron, Electricity in the 17th & 18th Centuries: A Study of Early Modern Physics, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

 

Section 24.3  Law of conservation of charge

 

I. B. Cohen, "Conservation and the concept of electric charge: an aspect of philosophy in relation to physics in the nineteenth century," in Critical Problems in the History of Science (edited by M. Clagett), Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959.

 

Section 24.7  Coulomb's law of electrostatics

 

Christine Blondel and Matthias Dörries, editors, Restaging Coulomb, Firenze: Olschki, 1994.  Discussion of Coulomb's experiment and attempts to replicate it.

Jon Dorling, "Henry Cavendish's Deduction of the Electrostatic Inverse-Square Law from the Result of a Single Experiment," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 4, pages 327-348 (1974)

C. S. Gillmor, Coulomb and the Evolution of Physics and Engineering in Eighteenth Century France.  Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1971.

R. W. Home, The Effluvial Theory of Electricity, New York: Arno Press, 1981.

Joseph Priestley, The History and Present State of Electricity, with Original Experiments,  New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1966.

Bertrand Russell, The ABC of Atoms, New York: Dutton, 1923.

 

Chapter 25   Electromagnetism, X-Rays, and Electrons

 

Nancy J. Nersessian, Faraday to Einstein, Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1984.

Edmund T. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, 2nd ed., Vol. I, Chapters VI-X and XIII  

 

Section 25.1   Introduction

 

Lawrence Badash, "The Completeness of Nineteenth-Century Science," Isis, Vol. 63, pages 48-58 (1972)

A. A. Michelson, "Some of the Objects and Methods of Physical Science," University of Chicago Quarterly Calendar, August 1894, no. 3, page 15, quoted by Badash, above; see also Michelson, Light Waves and their Uses, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902, pages 23-24

 

Section 25.2   Currents and magnets

 

Geoffrey Cantor, David Gooding and Frank A. J. L. James (editors), Michael Faraday, Atlantic Highland, NJ: Humanities Press, 1996.

Michael Faraday, Experimental Researches in Electricity, New York: Dover, 1965 (reprint of the 1839-1855 edition)

Hans Christian Oersted, Selected Scientific Works (edited by K. Jelved, A. D. Jackson, and O. Knudsen), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

R. A. R. Tricker, Early Electrodynamics, the First law of Circulation, New York: Pergamon Press, 1965; The Contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to Electrical Science, New York: Pergamon Press, 1966.  Both books include historical and scientific commentary and extracts from original sources.

R. C. Stauffer, "Speculation and experiment in the background of Oersted's discovery of electromagnetism," Isis, Vol. 48, pages 33-50 (1957)

L. Pearce Williams, Michael Faraday,  New York: Basic Books, 1965.

 

Section 25.3   Electromagnetic waves and ether

 

Joan Bromberg, "Maxwell's displacement current and his theory of light," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 4, pages 218-234 (1967)

Jed Buchwald, From Maxwell to Microphysics: Aspects of Electromagnetic Theory in the Last Quarter of the Nineteenth Century, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985; The Creation of Scientific Effects: Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Albert Einstein, "Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality," and other articles in James Clerk Maxwell: A Commemoration Volume, London: Cambridge University Press, 1931.

P. M. Harman, The Natural Philosophy of James Clerk Maxwell, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

John Hendry, James Clerk Maxwell and the Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Accord, MA: Hilger, 1982.

James Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, third edition, New York: Dover, 1954.

James Clerk Maxwell, Scientific Letters and Papers (edited by P. M. Harman)

W. T. Scott, "Resource Letter FC‑1 on the evolution of the electromagnetic field concept," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 31, no. 11 (November 1963)

Daniel M. Siegel, Innovation in Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory: Molecular Vortices, Displacement Current, and Light, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Daniel M. Siegel, "Text and Context in Maxwell''s Electromagnetic Theory," Physis, Vol. 33, pages 125-140 (1996)

T. K. Simpson, Maxwell on the Electromagnetic Field: A Guided Study, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

M. Norton Wise, "The Mutual Embrace of Electricity and Magnetism," in History of Physics (edited by S. G. Brush), pages 96-104

 

Section 25.4  Hertz's experiments

 

Salvo d'Agostino,  "Hertz's researches and their place in nineteenth century theoretical physics," Centaurus, Vol. 36, pages 46-82 (1993)

Jed Z. Buchwald, The Creation of Scientific Effects: Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Margaret Morrison, "Scientific conclusions and philosophical arguments: An essential tension," in Scientific Practice (edited by J. Buchwald), pages 224-256.  On Hertz's approach to electromagnetism.

Charles Süsskind, "Observations of Electromagnetic Wave radiation before Hertz," Isis, Vol. 55, pages 32-42 (1964)

 

Section 25.5   Cathode rays

 

Jed Buchwald, "Why Hertz was right about cathode rays," in Scientific Practice (edited by Buchwald), pages 161-169

 

25.6   X-rays and the turn of the century

 

[William] Lawrence Bragg,  The Development of X-ray Analysis,  New York: Hafner, 1975.

Bern Dibner, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the Discovery of X-Rays, New York: Watts, 1968.

J. L. Heilbron, "Fin-de-Siècle Physics" in Science, Technology, and Society in the Time of Alfred Nobel, edited by C. G. Bernhard et al., pages 51-73,  Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1982.

Heinrich Hertz, Electric Waves, New York, Dover, 1962. 

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, "Nineteenth Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light," Philosophical Magazine, series 6, Vol. 2, pages 1-40 (1901)

Bettyann Holtzmann Kevles, Naked to the Bone: Medical Imaging in the Twentieth Century, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Alan Michette and Slawke Pfauntsch, X-rays: The First Hundred Years, New York: Wiley, 1997.

M. Teich and R. Porter, editors, Fin de siècle and its Legacy,  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Bruce R. Wheaton, The Tiger and the Shark: Empirical Roots of Wave-Particle Dualism,  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

 

Section 25.7  The "Discovery of the Electron"

 

David Anderson,  The Discovery of the Electron, Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1964.

David Anderson, "Resource Letter ECAN-1 on the electronic charge and Avogadro's number,"  American Journal of Physics, Vol. 34, pages 2-8 (1966)

Theodore Arabatzis, "Rethinking the "discovery" of the electron," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 27, pages 405-435 (1996)

P. F. Dahl, Flash of the Cathode Rays: A History of J. J. Thomson's Electron, Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1997.

E. A. Davis and I. Falconer, J. J. Thomson and the Discovery of the Electron, Levittown, PA: Taylor & Francis, 1997.

Isobel Falconer, "Corpuscles, Electrons and Cathode Rays: J. J. Thomson and the 'Discovery of the Electron,'" British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 20, pages 241-276 (1987); "J. J. Thomson's Work on Positive Rays, 1906-1914," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 18, pages 265-310 (1988).

Gerald Holton, "Subelectrons, Presuppositions, and the Millikan-Ehrenhaft Dispute," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 9, pages 161-224 (1977)

Alfred Romer, "The speculative History of Atomic Charges,  1873-1895" and "The experimental History of Atomic Charges, 1895-1903," Isis Vol. 33, pages 671-683 and Vol. 34, pages 150-161 (1942); "Proton or Prouton?  Rutherford and the Depths of the Atom," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 65, pages 707-716 (1997).

George Thomson,  J. J. Thomson, Discoverer of the Electron,  London: Nelson/Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1966;

George Thomson, "An unfortunate experiment: Hertz and the nature of cathode rays,"  Notes & Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 25, pages 237-242 (1970)

J. J. Thomson, Electricity and Matter, New York: Scribner's Sons, 1904.

 

Chapter 26  The Quantum Theory of Light

 

E. T. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, Vol. I, Chapter XII

Max Born, Atomic Physics, 4th edition, New York:: Hafner, 1946.

 

Section 26.2   Continuous emission spectra

 

S. G. Brush, Kind of Motion We Call Heat, Chapter 13

Hans Kangro, Early History of Planck's Radiation Law, New York: Crane Russak, 1976

 

Section 26.3   The quantum hypothesis

 

Peter Galison, "Kuhn and the Quantum Controversy," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 32, pages 71-84 (1981).

Elizabeth Garber, "Some Reactions to Planck's Law, 1900-1914," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 7, pages 89-126 (1976)

Claudio Garola and Arcangelo Rossi (editors), The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics: Historical Analysis and Open Questions, Boston: Kluwer, 1995, papers on Planck and Kuhn's interpretation of his work, by P. Campogalliani and P. Cerreta

D. ter Haar, The Old Quantum Theory, New York: Pergamon Press, 1967: Part 1, Chapters I and II; Part 2, reprints of papers by Planck and Einstein, translated from German

John Hendry, "The Development of Attitudes to the Wave-Particle Duality of Light and Quantum Theory, 1900-1920," Annals of Science, Vol. 37, pages 59-79 (1980).

Max Jammer, Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics, Chapter 1.

Hans Kangro, Early History of Planck's Radiation Law, New York: Crane, Russak, 1976; Planck's Original Papers in Quantum Physics, London: Taylor & Francis, 1972

M. J. Klein, "Max Planck and the beginnings of the quantum theory," in History of Physics (edited by S. G. Brush), pages 111-131

Martin J. Klein, Abner Shimony, and Trevor J. Pinch, "Paradigms Lost?  A Review Symposium," Isis, Vol. 70, pages 429-440 (1979), on Kuhn's Black-Body Theory

Thomas S. Kuhn, Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Argues that Planck did not propose a physical quantum hypothesis in 1900. 

Otto Oldenberg, Introduction to Atomic Physics, fourth edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967

Max Planck, Scientific Autobiography

Max Planck, A Survey of Physical Theory, translated by R. Jones and D. H. Williams, New York: Dover, 1960

 

Section 26.4  The Photoelectric effect

 

Roger H. Stuewer, "Non-Einsteinian interpretations of the photoelectric effect," in Historical and Philosophical Perspectives of Physics (edited by Stuewer), pages 246-263, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1970

Bruce R. Wheaton, "Philipp Lenard and the photoelectric effect, 1889-1911," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 9, pages 299-322 (1978)

 

Section 26.5  Einstein's photon theory

 

Albert Einstein, Collected Papers, Vols. 2 and 5

Paul Kirkpatrick, "Confirming the Planck-Einstein equation hv = ½mv²," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 48 (1980), pages 803-806

Martin J. Klein, "Einstein's first paper on quanta," The Natural Philosopher, Vol. 2, pages 57-86 (1963)

Arthur I. Miller, "On Einstein, light quanta, radiation and relativity in 1905," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 44, pages 917-923 (1976)

Luis Navarro, "On Einstein's statistical-mechanical approach to the early quantum theory (1904-1916), Historica Scientiarum, new series, Vol. 1, pages 39-58 (1991)

Abraham Pais, "How Einstein got the Nobel Prize," American Scientist, Vol. 70, pages 358-365 (1982)

 

 

Chapter 27   Radioactivity and the Nuclear Atom

 

Mario Bunge and William R. Shea, Rutherford and Physics at the Turn of the Century, New York: Science History Publications, 1979

 

Section 27.1  Early research on radioactivity and isotopes

 

Marie Curie, Radioactive Substances, New York: Philosophical Library, 1961

Francoise Giroud, Marie Curie: A Life, New York: Holmes and Meier, 1986

Norman E. Holden, "Table of the Isotopes (Revised 1995)," in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 78th edition, 1997-1998 (edited by D. R. Lide), pages 11-41 to 11-146,  Boca Raton and New York: CRC Press, 1997

E. N. Jenkins, Radioactivity: A Science in Historical and Social Context, New York: Crane Russak, 1979

Helge Kragh, "The origin of radioactivity: From solvable problem to unsolved non-problem," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 50, pages 331-358 (1997).

A. Pais, "Radioactivity's two early puzzles," Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 49, pages 925-938 (1977)

Susan Quinn, Marie Curie: A Life, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995

A. Romer, The Discovery of Radioactivity and Transmutation, New York: Dover Publications, 1964; Radiochemistry and the Discovery of Isotopes, New York: Dover Publications, 1970.  Both books contain a selection of reprints and translations of original papers, with commentary.

 

Section 27.2  Radioactive half life

 

E. Amaldi, "Radioactivity, a pragmatic pillar of probabilistic conceptions," in Problems in the Foundations of Physics (edited by G. Toraldo di Francia), pages 1-28, New York: North-Holland, 1979

J. Van Brakel, "The possible influence of the discovery of radio-active decay on the concept of physical probability," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol  31, pages 369-385 (1985)

 

Section 27.3  Radioactive series

 

Lawrence Badash, "Nuclear physics in Rutherford's laboratory before the discovery of the neutron," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 51, pages 884-889 (1983)

Lawrence Badash, Radioactivity in America, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975;

Lawrence Badash, "The suicidal success of radiochemistry," British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 12, pages 245-256

 

 

Section 27.4   Rutherford's nuclear model

 

Ernest Rutherford, "The scattering of α- and ß-particles by matter and the structure of the atom," Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 21, pages 669-688 (1911); in World of the Atom (edited by Boorse & Motz), pages 707-722

Thaddeus J. Trenn, "The Geiger-Marsden Scattering Results and Rutherford's Atom, July 1912 to July 1913: The shifting significance of scientific evidence," Isis, Vol. 54, pages 74-82 (1974);

 

Section 27.5   Moseley's x-ray spectra

 

J. L. Heilbron, H. G. J. Moseley: The Life and Letters of an English Physicist, 1887-1915, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

 

Section 27.6   Further concepts of nuclear structure

 

James Chadwick, "The Existence of a Neutron," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. A136, pages 692-707 (1932); in World of the Atom (edited by Boorse & Motz), pages 1294-1308

Ernest Rutherford, "Nuclear constitution of atoms," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. A97, pages 374-    (1920)

Thaddeus J. Trenn, The Self-Splitting Atom: The History of the Rutherford-Soddy Collaboration, London: Taylor & Frances, 1977

Thaddeus J. Trenn, Transmutation: Natural and Artificial, Philadelphia: Heyden, 1981

S. Wright, Classical Scientific Papers -- Physics, New York: American Elsevier, 1965

 

Chapter 28   Bohr's Model of the Atom

 

Niels Bohr, Collected Works, Vol. 2: Work on Atomic Physics (1912-1917), edited by U. Hoyer, New York: North-Holland, 1981.

Jan Faye and Henry J. Folse (editors), Niels Bohr and Contemporary Philosophy, Boston: Kluwer, 1994

Hinne Hettema, "Bohr's theory of the atom, 1913-1923: A case study in the progress of scientific research programmes," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 26, pages 307-323 (1995)

 

Section 28.1   Line emission spectra

 

W. R. Hindmarsh, Atomic Spectra, New York: Pergamon Press, 1967.  Includes reprints of papers by Balmer, Rydberg, Bohr, and others.

J. MacLean, "On harmonic ratios in spectra," Annals of Science, Vol. 28, pages 121137 (1972).  Some precursors of Balmer.

William McGucken, Nineteenth Century Spectroscopy, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969

 

Section 28.4   Niels Bohr and the problem of atomic structure

 

J. L. Heilbron, "Rutherford-Bohr Atom," American Journal of Physics, vol. 49, pages 223-231 (1977); "The Origins of the Exclusion Principle," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 13, pages 261-310 (1983) 

J. L. Heilbron and T. S. Kuhn, "The genesis of the Bohr atom," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 1, pages 211-290 (1969)

T. Hirosige and S. Nisio, "The genesis of the Bohr atom model and Planck's theory of radiation," Japanese Studies in the History of Science, No. 9, pages 3547 (1970)

M. Jammer, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics

Helge Kragh, "Niels Bohr's Second Atomic Theory," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 10, pages 123-186 (1979).

 

Section 28.6   Further developments

 

Sin-itiro Tomonaga, The story of spin

 

Chapter 29   Quantum Mechanics

 

J. L. Heilbron, "Quantum historiography and the Archive for History of Quantum Physics," History of Science, Vol. 7, pages 90-111 (1968)

Max Jammer, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics, Chapters 4-9

Wolfgang Pauli (editor), Niels Bohr and the Development of Physics

 

Section 29.1  Recasting the foundations of physics once more

 

Paul Forman, "Weimar culture, causality, and quantum theory, 1918-1927.  Adaptation by German physicists and mathematicians to a hostile intellectual environment," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 3, pages 1‑115 (1971).  This article is often cited as an example of the (alleged) "social construction of scientific knowledge." See also the articles cited below by Kraft & Kroes, "Adaptation...," Hendry, "Weimar ..."  and Brush, "Chimerical Cat"

John Hendry, "Weimar Culture and Quantum Causality," History of Science, Vol. 18, pages 155-180 (1980); The Creation of Quantum Mechanics and the Bohr-Pauli Dialogue, Boston: Reidel, 1984.

P. Kraft and P. Kroes, "Adaptation of scientific knowledge to an intellectual environment. Paul Forman's 'Weimar culture, causality, and quantum theory, 1918-1927': Analysis and criticism," Centaurus, Vol. 27, pages 76-99 (1984)

 

Section 29.2   The wave nature of matter

 

Werner Heisenberg, The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory, translated by C. Eckart and F. C. Hoyt, New York: Dover, 1949

G. Ludwig, Wave Mechanics, New York: Pergamon Press, 1968.  Includes extracts from papers by de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan.

V. V. Raman and P. Forman, "Why was it Schrödinger who developed de Broglie's ideas?" Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 1, pages 291-314 (1969)

Helmut Rechenberg, "Quanta and Quantum Mechanics," in Twentieth Century Physics (edited by L. M. Brown et al.), pages 143-248

B. L. van der Waerden, Sources of Quantum Mechanics, New York: Dover, 1968

 

29.3   Knowledge and reality in quantum mechanics

 

Alain Aspect, Jean Dalibard, and Gerald Roger, "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers," Physical Review Letters, vol. 49, pages 1804-1807 (1982).

J. S. Bell, "On the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky paradox," Physics, Vol. 1, pages 195-200 (1964)

Mara Beller, "The rhetoric of antirealism and the Copenhagen spirit," Philosophy of Science, Vol. 63 (1996), pages 183-204

Michel Bitbol, Schrödinger's Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics, Boston: Kluwer, 1996

Max Born (ed.), The Born-Einstein Letters, New York: Walker, 1971.  See p. 91 for the original version of Einstein's "God does not play dice" statement.

S. G. Brush, "The Chimerical Cat: Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics in Historical Perspective," Social Studies of Science, vol. 10, pages 393-447 (1980).

James T. Cushing, Quantum Mechanics: Historical Contingency and the Copenhagen Hegemony.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.  Argues that David Bohm's causal version of quantum mechanics is as valid as the Copenhagen Interpretation and that it could have been accepted by physicists if certain historical events had been different or in a different sequence.

Albert Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, "Can quantum-mechanical description of reality be considered complete," Physical Review, series 2, Vol. 47, pages 477-480 (1935); reply by N. Bohr (same title), Vol. 48, pages 696-702 (1935)

Arthur Fine, The Shaky Game: Einstein, Realism, and the Quantum Theory, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, second edition, 1996.

A. Furusawa et al, "Unconditional quantum teleportation," Science, Vol. 282, pages 706-709 (1998), with explanatory article by C. M. Caves, "A tale of two cities," pages 637-638

Max Jammer, The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics, New York: Wiley/Interscience, 1974. 

Halley D. Sanchez, "Shimony, the Dilemma of Quantum Mechanics, and the History of Philosophy," Dialogos, volume 45, pages 79-92 (1985).

Abner Shimony, "Metaphysical Problems in the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics," International Philosophical Quarterly, volume 18, pages 3-17 (1978).  See the article by Sanchez (cited above) for another perspective on this topic.

John Archibald Wheeler and Wojciech Hubert Zurek (editors), Quantum Theory and Measurement, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983

 

Section 29.4   Systems of identical particles

 

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Esher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, "Observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Atomic Vapor," Science, vol. 269, pp. 198-201.  See also the articles by G. Taubes and K. Burnett in the same issue, pages 152-153 and 182-183.

S. G. Brush, "Dynamics of theory change in chemistry: Part 2, Benzene and molecular orbitals, 1945-1980," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Science, Vol. 30, pages 263-302 (1999)

S. G. Brush, Statistical Physics, Chapters IV and V

Cathryn L. Carson, "The peculiar notion of exchange forces: I. Origins in quantum mechanics, 1926-1928," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 27, pages 23-45 (1996)

Kostas Gavroglu, Fritz London: A Scientific Biography, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995

Lillian H. Hoddeson, Gordon Baym, and Michael Eckert, "The Development of the Quantum Mechanical Electron Theory of Metals: 1926-1933," in Out of the Crystal Maze (edited by Hoddeson et al.), pages 88-181, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Daniel Kleppner, quoted in Chronicle of Higher Education, 21 July 1995

Alexei Kohevnikov, "Freedom, collectivism, and quasiparticles: Social metaphors in quantum physics," Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, Vol. 29, pages 295-331 (1999)

Bernard Pullman, The Atom in the History of Thought, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, Chapter 20

 

Chapter 30   Einstein's theory of relativity

 

Stephen G. Brush, "Why was Relativity Accepted?" Physics in Perspective, Vol. 1, pages 184-214 (1999). A review of studies of the reception of relativity theory in several countries.

Albert Einstein, Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, (edited by J. Stachel et al.).  A comprehensive edition of Einstein's published works and correspondence, with extensive annotations and commentary. English translations are published in separate paperback volumes.

H. A. Lorentz, A. Einstein, H. Minkowski and H. Weyl, The Principle of Relativity, A Collection of Original Memoirs on the Special and General Theory of Relativity, with Notes by A. Sommerfeld, translated by W. Perrett and G. B. Jeffery, New York: Dover, 1952.  This book, first published in 1923, was one of the major sources on relativity for English-speaking scientists for several decades, although the translations are not always accurate; see, e.g., Charles Scribner, Jr., "Mistranslation of a passage in Einstein's original paper on relativity," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 31, page 398 (1963)

John Stachel, "History of Relativity," in Twentieth Century Physics, edited by L. M. Brown et al., pages 249-356.  Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1995.

Richard Staley, "On the histories of relativity: The propagation and elaboration of relativity theory in participant histories in Germany, 1905-1911," Isis, Vol. 89, pages 263-299

 

30.1  Biographical sketch of Albert Einstein

 

Mara Beller, Jürgen Renn and Robert S. Cohen (editors), "Einstein in Context," Science in Context, Vol. 6, no. 1, pages 1-368 (1993)

Gerald Holton, Advancement of Science, Chapters 2-6

Gerald Holton, Thematic Origins, Part II

Arthur I. Miller, Imagery in Scientific Thought, Boston: Birkhäuser, 1984

A. Pais, 'Subtle is the Lord': The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

 

Section 30.2  The FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction

 

S. G. Brush, "A note on the history of the FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction," Isis, Vol. 58, pages 230-232 (1967)

Gerald Holton, "Einstein, Michelson, and the "Crucial" Experiment," in Thematic Origins, Chapter 8

Susan G. Sterrett, "Sounds like light: Einstein's special theory of relativity and Mach's work in acoustics and aerodynamics," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 29, pages 1-35 (1998)

Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Genesis of Relativity, New York: Franklin, 1979.  Includes the 19th-century background.

 

Section 30.3   Einstein's Formulation (1905)

 

David Cassidy, "Understanding the History of Special Relativity," Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, Vol. 16, pages 177-195 (1986).  A review of historical writings.

Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld, The Evolution of Physics from Early Concepts to Relativity and Quanta, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966

Arthur I. Miller,  Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity: Emergence (1905) and Early Interpretation (1905-1911), New York: Springer-Verlag, 1997 (corrected reprint of the 1981 edition).  Includes a new translation of the 1905 paper. 

 

30.7   Consequences and examples

 

J. C. Hafele and R. E. Keating, "Around‑the‑world atomic clocks," Science, Vol. 177, pages 166‑170 (1972). Four cesium beam atomic clocks were flown on commercial jet flights around the world twice, once eastward and once westward. Relativity theory predicts that the clocks compared with reference clocks at the U.S. Naval Observatory, should have lost 40 + 23 nanoseconds during the eastward trip, and gained 276 + 21 nanoseconds during the westward trip; it was found that they lost 59 + 10 nanoseconds and gained 273 + 7 nanoseconds, respectively, thus confirming the theory of the "twin paradox."  For further discussion see R.  Schlegel, American Journal of Physics, Vol. 42, pages 183-187 (1974). 

Gerald Holton et al., Special Relativity Theory, selected Reprints, New York: American Institute of Physics. Includes the article "On the origins of the special theory of relativity" and the annotated bibliography prepared by G. Holton, and reprints of 15 other articles on the clock (twin) paradox and other aspects of relativity.

 

30.8   The equivalence of mass and energy

 

Francisco Flores, "Einstein's 1935 derivation of E = mc²," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 29, pages 223-243 (1998)

 

30.9   Relativistic quantum mechanics

 

Peter Galison, "Feynman's war: Modelling weapons, modelling nature," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 29, pages 391-434 (1998)

Helge Kragh, Dirac: A scientific biography, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990

Dalida Monti, "Dirac's holes model: From proton to positron," Nuncius, Vol. 20, pages 99-130 (1995)

Sin-itiro Tomonaga, The story of spin

 

30.10   The general theory of relativity

 

S. G. Brush, "Prediction and theory evaluation: The case of light bending," Science, Vol. 246, pages 1124-1129 (1989)

Leo Corry, Jürgen Renn and John Stachel, "Belated decision in the Hilbert-Einstein priority dispute," Science, Vol. 278, pages 1270-1273 (1997).  Newly-discovered evidence that Einstein arrived at the equations of general relativity first.

John Earman and Clark Glymour, "Relativity and eclipses: The British eclipse expeditions of 1919 and their predecessors," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 11, pages 49-85 (1980); "The Gravitational Red Shift as a Test of General Relativity Theory: History and Analysis," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 11, pages 175-214 (1980)

John Earman, Michel Janssen and John D. Norton (editors), The Attraction of Gravitation: New Studies in the History of General Relativity, Boston: Birkhäuser, 1993

H. Goenner, T. Sauer, J. Renn and J. Ritter (editors), The Expanding Worlds of General Relativity, Boston: Birkhäuser, 1998

Klaus Hentschel, "Measurements of gravitational red shift between 1959 and 1971," Annals of Science, Vol. 53, pages 269-295 (1996)

Jarrett Leplin (editor), The Creation of Ideas in Physics: Studies for a Methodology of Theory Construction, Boston: Kluwer, 1995.  Includes papers by J. D. Norton, J. Stachel, R. Torretti and J. Dorling on Einstein's relativity theory, pages 29-111

J. D. North, The Measure of the Universe, a History of Modern Cosmology, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965

Arthur I. Miller, "Einstein's first steps toward General Relativity: Gedanken Experiments and axiomatics," Physics in Perspective, Vol. 1, pages 85-104 (1999).

Jürgen Renn, Tilman Sauer and John Stachel, "The Origin of Gravitational Lensing: A postscript to Einstein's 1935 Science paper," Science, Vol. 275, pages 184-186 (1997).  Shows that he explored the possibility of lensing 3 years before completing his General Theory.

N. T. Roseveare, Mercury's Perihelion from Le Verrier to Einstein, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.

R. Ruffini and J. A. Wheeler, "Introducing the black hole," Physics Today, January 1971, pages 30-41 (and cover illustration).

K. S. Thorne, Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy, New York: Norton, 1994

Virginia Trimble and Lodewijk Woltjer, "Quasars at 25," Science, volume 234, pages 155-161 (1986), describes the evidence that the energy source for a quasar is accretion onto a massive black hole.

C. M. Will, "Einstein on the firing line," Physics Today, Vol. 25, No. 10, pages 23‑29 (October 1972). A survey of tests of general relativity and similar theories; Was Einstein Right?: Putting General Relativity to the Test, New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Frank Wilczek, "The persistence of ether," Physics Today, Vol. 52, no. 1, pages 11, 13 (January 1999).  "At present, renamed and thinly disguised, [ether] dominates the accepted laws of physics" contrary to popular belief that Einstein "swept it into the dustbin of history."

 

Chapter 31   The Origin of the Solar System and the Expanding Universe

 

David H. DeVorkin, History of Modern Astronomy

Owen Gingerich (ed.),  General History of Astronomy, vol. 4, Part A, Astrophysics and Twentieth-Century Astronomy to 1950.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Kenneth R. Lang and Owen Gingerich (editors),  Source Book in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1900-1975,  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979.

M. K. Munitz (editor),  Theories of the Universe,  New York: Free Press, 1957, pages 302-439, extracts from writings of W. de Sitter, G. Lemaitre, G. Gamow, H. Bondi, F. Hoyle and others.

 

Section 31.1   The nebular hypothesis

 

S. G. Brush, "Finding the Age of the Earth: By Physics or by Faith?" Journal of Geological Education, Vol. 30, pages 34-58 (1982)

S. G. Brush,  A History of Modern Planetary Physics

 

Section 31.2   Planetesimal and tidal theories

 

T. C. Chamberlin, Origin of the Earth, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1916

J. H. Jeans, "The evolution of the solar system," Endeavour, Vol. 2, pages 3-11 (January 1943)

Section 31.3  Revival of monistic theories after 1940

 

Alex N. Halliday and Michael J. Drake, "Colliding theories," Science, Vol. 283, pages 1861-1863 (1999), review of current theories on origin of earth and moon

Katherine Haramundanis (editor), Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: An Autobiography and other Recollections, second edition, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Cecilia H. Payne, "Astrophysical data bearing on the relative abundance of the elements," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Vol. 11, pages 192-198 (1925)

Frank A. Podosek, "A couple of uncertain age," Science, Vol. 283, pages 1863-1864 (1999), review of current estimates of the ages of earth and moon

 

Section 31.4   Nebulae and Galaxies

 

Richard Berendzen, Richard Hart, and Daniel Seeley,  Man Discovers the Galaxies.  New York: Science History, 1976.

Michael Hoskin,  "The 'Great Debate': What Really Happened?"  Journal for the History of Astronomy 7: 169-182 (1976).

J.H. Oort, "The development of our insight into the structure of the galaxy between 1920 and 1940," in Education in and History of Modern Astronomy (edited by R. Berendzen), pages 255-266, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 198, pages 255-266 (1972)

Harlow Shapley, "On the existence of external galaxies," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 31, pages 261-268 (1919)

Harlow Shapley, Through Rugged Ways to the Stars, New York: Scribner, 1969 (reminiscences about his galactic research and interactions with other astronomers)

Harlow Shapley and Heber D. Curtis, "The scale of the universe," Bulletin of the National Research Council, Vol. 2, no. 11 (1921)

Robert W. Smith,  The Expanding Universe: Astronomy's "Great Debate" 1900-1931, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982

 

Section 31.5  The expanding universe

 

Jeremy Bernstein and Gerald Feinberg (editors), Cosmological Constants: Papers in Modern Cosmology, New York: Columbia University Press, 1986

Gale E. Christiansen, Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995

E. P. Hubble, The Realm of the Nebulae, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936

Allan Sandage, "Inventing the beginning," Science 84, Vol. 5, no. 9, pages 111-113 (1984)

Virginia Trimble, "H0: The incredible shrinking constant, 1925-1975," Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol 108, pages 1073-1082 (1996); "Extragalactic distance scales: H0 from Hubble (Edwin) to Hubble (Hubble Telescope), Space Science Reviews, Vol. 79, pages 793-834 (1997).

 

Section 31.6  Lemaître's primeval atom

 

Michael Heller, Lemaître, Big Bang, and the Quantum Universe, Tucson, AZ: Pachart, 1996

Georges Lemaître, "The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of the Quantum Theory,"  Nature, Vol. 127, page 706 (1931); The Primeval Atom.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1950. 

Chapter 32   Construction of the elements and the universe

 

Section 32.1   Nuclear physics in the 1930s

 

Laurie M. Brown and Helmut Rechenberg, The Origin of the Concept of Nuclear Forces, Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1996.

Erwin N. Hiebert, "The role of experiment and theory in the development of nuclear physics in the early 1930s," in Theory and Experiment (edited by D. Batens and J. P. van Bendegem), pages 55-76, Boston: Reidel, 1988

Jeff Hughes, "'Modernists with a vengeance: Changing cultures of theory in nuclear science, 1920-1930," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 29, pages 339-367 (1998)

Arthur I. Miller,  "Werner Heisenberg and the Beginnings of Nuclear Physics,"  Physics Today, Vol. 38, no. 11: 60-68 (1985). Roger H. Stuewer, "Artificial Disintegration and the Cambridge-Vienna Controversy," in Observation, Experiment, and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science, edited by P. Achinstein and O. Hannaway, pp. 239-307; "Mass-Energy and the Neutron in the Early Thirties," Science in Context, Vol. 6, pages 195-238 (1993)

 

 

Section 32.2   Formation of the elements in stars

 

Jeremy Bernstein,  Prophet of Energy: Hans Bethe,  New York: Dutton, 1981;  "Three Degrees above Zero."  New Yorker, Vol. 60, no. 2, pages 42-70 (1984). A profile of R. W. Wilson and A. A. Penzias.

Donald D. Clayton, "Radiogenic iron," Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 34, pages A145-A160 (1999).  Historical review of the idea that most of the iron in the universe was created and rejected from stars not as iron but as radioactive nickel.  

Karl Hufbauer, "Astronomers take up the stellar-energy problem."  Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 11, pages 277-303 (1981).

 

Section 32.3   Fission and the atomic bomb

 

Hanne Andersen, "Categorization, anomalies and the discovery of nuclear fission," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 27, pages 463-492 (1996)

Jeremy Bernstein (ed.), Hitler's Uranium Club: The Secret Recordings at Farm Hall.  New York: AIP Press, 1996.  Includes evidence that the project led by Heisenberg failed to produce an atomic bomb because of technical inadequacies rather than a morally-grounded refusal to make this weapon available to Hitler.

Peter Galison, "Feynman's war: Modelling weapons, modelling nature," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Vol. 29, pages 391-434 (1998)

Hans G. Graetzer and David L. Anderson, The Discovery of Nuclear Fission, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1971

L. R. Morss and J. Fuger (editors), Transuranium Elements: A Half Century, Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1992, articles by G. T. Seaborg and others

Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb,  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.

Glenn T. Seaborg and Walter D. Loveland, The Elements beyond Uranium, New York: Wiley, 1990

Robert Serber, The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on How to Build and Atomic Bomb, edited with an Introduction by Richard Rhodes,  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Ruth Sime,  Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics,  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

C. P. Snow, "A new means of destruction," Discovery, new series, Vol. 2, no. 18, pages 443-444 (September 1939)

 

Section 32.4   Big Bang or Steady State?

 

Ralph A. Alpher and Robert C. Herman, "Origins of Primordial Nucleosynthesis and Prediction of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation."  In Encyclopedia of Cosmology, edited by N. S. Hetherington, pages 453-475.  New York: Garland, 1993. 

Jeremy Bernstein and Gerald Feinberg (eds.),  Cosmological Constants: Papers in Modern Cosmology.  New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Geoffrey Burbidge, Fred Hoyle, and Jayant Narlikar, "A different approach to cosmology," Physics Today, Vol. 52, no. 4, pages 38-44 (April 1999). Summary: "In this unorthodox assault on mainstream cosmology, three venerable stalwarts argue for a quasi-steady-state universe, with some quasars quite nearby and no Big Bang."  Followed by Andreas Albrecht, "A reply to "A Different Approach to Cosmology," ibid., pages 44-46; summary: "Expanding surveys and galaxy redshifts and fluctuations in the microwave background continue to rein in the cosmologist's freedom to invent."

C. M. Copp,  "Relativistic Cosmology. I. Paradigm Commitment and Rationality" and " ... II. Social Structure, Skepticism, and Cynicism,"  Astronomy Quarterly, Vol. 4, pages 103-116, 179-188 (1982).

Eamon Harper and David Anderson (editors), The George Gamow Symposium, San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1996

Fred Hoyle, Home is Where the Wind Blows: Chapters from a Cosmologist's Life, Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books, 1994.

Laurie John (editor),  Cosmology Now,  London: British Broadcasting Corp., 1973.  Includes M. Ryle, "Looking with new eyes" and other views on the Steady State/Big Bang controversy.

Helge Kragh, Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.    A detailed study of the Steady State vs. Big Bang debate.

Malcolm S. Longair, "Astrophysics and Cosmology," in Twentieth Century Physics (edited by L. M. Brown et al.) pages 1691-1821.

M. P. Ryan and L. C. Shepley, "Resource Letter RC-1: Cosmology," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 44, pages 223-230 (1976)

L. C. Shepley and A. A. Strassenburg (eds.),  Cosmology: Selected Reprints.  Stony Brook, NY: American Association of Physics Teachers, 1979. 

Virginia Trimble, "Extra galactic distance scales: H0 from Hubble (Edwin) to Hubble (Hubble Telescope), Space Science Reviews, Vol. 79, pages 793-834 (1997)

 

Section 32.5   Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Radiation

 

Stephen G. Brush,  "Prediction and Theory Evaluation: Cosmic Microwaves and the Revival of the Big Bang,"  Perspectives on Science, Vol. 1, pages 565-602 (1993).  

Virginia Trimble, "Backgrounds and the Big Bang: Some extracts from their history," in Examining the Big Bang and Diffuse Background Radiation (edited by M. Kafatos and Y. Kondon), pages 9-16, Boston: Kluwer, 1996.

 

Section 32.6   Beyond the Big Bang

 

J. D. Barrow and F. J. Tipler, F. J.,  The Anthropic Cosmological Principle,  New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

James Glanz, "No backing off from the accelerating universe," and "Cosmic motion revealed: Astronomers peered deep into the universe and found that it is flying apart ever faster, suggesting that Einstein was right when he posited a mysterious energy that fills 'empty' space," Science, Vol. 282, pages 1249-1251, 2156-2157 (1998)

Michael S. Turner and J. Anthony Tyson, "Cosmology at the millennium," in More Things in Heaven and Earth (edited by B. Bederson), pages 245-277

 

Chapter 33   Thematic elements and styles in science

 

James Clerk Maxwell, "Molecules," reprinted in Maxwell on Molecules and Gases (edited by E. Garber et al.), with drafts and commentary, pages 133-154

 

Section 33.1   The thematic element in science

 

E. J. Dijksterhuis, The Mechanization of the World Picture, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.

Gerald Holton, Thematic Origins, Chapter 1;  The Scientific Imagination, Chapters 1 and 4;  Science and Anti-Science

Bertrand Russell, Human Knowledge, London: Allen and Unwin, 1948.

Section 33.2   Themata in the history of science

 

F. M. Cornford, Principium Sapientiae, London: Cambridge University Press, 1952.

Gerald Holton, "The role of themata in science," Foundations of Physics, Vol. 26, pages 453-465 (1996)

 

Section 33.3   Styles of thought in science and culture

 

Charles Altieri, "The concept of force as modernist response to the authority of science," Modernism/Modernity, Vol. 5, no. 2, pages 77-93 (1998), on Hegel.

Stephen G. Brush, The Temperature of History: Phases of Science and Culture in the Nineteenth Century, New York: Franklin, 1978; "The Chimerical Cat: Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics in Historical Perspective," Social Studies of Science, Vol. 10, pages 393-447 (1980).

Kenneth L. Caneva, "Physics and Naturphilosophie: A reconnaissance," History of Science, Vol. 35, pages 35-106 (1997)

Craig Dilworth, "Empiricism vs. Realism: High points in the debate during the past 150 years," Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Vol. 21, pages 431-462 (1990)

Ian Hacking, "The Disunities of the Sciences," in The Disunity of Science, edited by P. Galison and D. J. Stump, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996, pages 37-74

Gerald Holton, Thematic Origins, Chapter 3

John Losee, Philosophy of Science and Historical Enquiry, New York: Oxford University Press, chapter 8

James W. McAllister, Beauty and Revolution in Science, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996.

Robert K. Merton, "Thematic Analysis in Science: Notes on Holton's Concept," Science, vol. 188, pages 335-338 (1975)

J. T. Merz, History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century, Edinburgh: Blackwood, 4 vols., 1904-1914.

Richard Olson, editor, Science as Metaphor: The Historical Role of Scientific Theories in forming Western Culture, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1971.

Jacob Opper, Science and the Arts: A Study in Relationships from 1600-1900, Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1973.

E. Rosen, Three Copernican Treatises, New York: Dover Publications, 1959, page 29.

Dorothy Ross, editor, Modernist Impulses in the Human Sciences, 1870-1930, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1994, especially the article by T. M. Porter on Fin de siècle philosophy of physics.

Meyer Schapiro, "Style," in Anthropology Today, edited by A. L. Kroeber, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pages 287-312

 

Section 33.4  Epilogue

 

Alistair Crombie, Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition, London: Duckworth, 1994, Volumes I and II

 

Appendix

 

Arlie Bailey, "Units, Standards, and Constants," in L. M. Brown et al. (eds.), Twentieth Century Physics, Chapter 16.

T. B. Coplen, for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances, "Atomic Weights of the Elements 1995," Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 26, pages 1239-1253 (1997). 

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, "Recommendations for the Naming of Elements of Atomic Numbers greater than 100 (Rules Approved 1978)" Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 31, pages 381-384 (1979)

Mario Iona, "SI units," in Macmillan Encyclopedia of Physics (edited by J. S. Rigden), pages 1438-1443.

Peter J. Mohr & Barry N. Taylor, "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 1998,"  Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 28, pages 1713-1852 (1999)

Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System.  New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1997.

 

3. General Bibliography

 

We list here books (and a few articles) that have been cited in more than one chapter (Recommended Reading or Sources), or are of general interest for students of the history of physical science.  A good small college library should have almost all of them, even if not in the latest edition. 

Alioto, Anthony M., A History of Western Science, second edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Aristotle, On the Heavens [De Caelo], translated by W. K. C. Guthrie, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960.

Bederson, Benjamin (editor), More Things in Heaven and Earth: A Celebration of Physics at the Millennium, New York: Springer Verlag, 1999. A collection of review articles, some historical.

Ben-David, Joseph, The Scientist's Role in Society: A Comparative Study, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette and Stengers, Isabelle, A History of Chemistry, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Blay, Michel, Reasoning with the Infinite: From the Closed World to the Mathematical Universe.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Boas, Marie, see Hall, Marie Boas

Boorse, H. A. and Motz, L. (editors), The World of the Atom.  New York: Basic Books, 1966.

Bridgman, P. W., The Logic of Modern Physics, New York: Macmillan, 1960.

Brock, William H., The Norton History of Chemistry, New York: Norton, 1993

Brown, Laurie M., Pais, Abraham, and Pippard, Brian (editors), Twentieth Century Physics, Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1995.

Brush, Stephen G., A History of Modern Planetary Physics, 3 vols., New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Brush, Stephen G. (editor), History of Physics: Selected Reprints, College Park, MD: American Association of Physics Teachers, 1988.

Brush, Stephen G., The Kind of Motion we call Heat: A History of the Kinetic Theory of Gases in the 19th Century, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1986

Brush, Stephen G. (editor), Kinetic Theory, Vol. 1, The Nature of Gases and of Heat; Vol. 2, Irreversible Processes; Vol. 3, The Chapman-Enskog Solution of the Transport Equation for Moderately Dense Gases, New York: Pergamon Press, 1965-1972

Brush, Stephen G. (editor), Resources for the History of Physics, Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1972.

Brush, Stephen G., Statistical Physics and the Atomic Theory of Matter, from Boyle and Newton to Landau and Onsager, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983

Brush, Stephen G., and Belloni, L., The History of Modern Physics: An International Bibliography, New York: Garland, 1983.

Buchwald, Jed Z. (editor), Scientific Practice: Theories and Stories of Doing Physics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995

Butterfield, Herbert, Origins of Modern Science, 1300-1800.  Revised edition.  New York: Free Press, 1997.

Cardwell, D. S. L., From Watt to Clausius: The Rise of Thermodynamics in the Early Industrial Age, Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1989

Cohen, I. Bernard, The Birth of a New Physics, revised & updated edition, New York: Norton,  new edition, 1985. 

Cohen, I. Bernard, An Introduction to Newton's Principia, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971

Cohen, I. Bernard, The Newtonian Revolution, With Illustrations of the Transformation of Scientific Ideas, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980

Cohen, I. Bernard and Westfall, Richard S. (editors), Newton: Texts, Backgrounds, Commentaries, New York: Norton, 1995.

Collingwood, R. G., The Idea of Nature, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964.

Conant, J. B. (editor), Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966

Conant, J. B., Science and Common Sense, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1961

Conant, J. B., On Understanding Science, New York: New American Library, 1951.

Crease, Robert P., and C. Mann, Charles C., The Second Creation: Makers of the Revolution in 20th-century Physics, revised edition, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. 

Crombie, A. C., Medieval and Early Modern Science, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Crombie, A. C., Science, Art and Nature in Medieval and Modern Thought, London: Hambledon Press, 1996.

Crowe, Michael J., Modern Theories of the Universe from Herschel to Hubble, New York: Dover, 1994.

Crowe, Michael J., Theories of the World from Antiquity to the Copernican Revolution, New York: Dover, 1990.

Cushing, J. T., Philosophical Concepts in Physics: The Historical Relation between Philosophy and Scientific Theories, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998

Davis, E. A. (editor), Science in the Making: Scientific Development as Chronicled by Historic Papers in the Philosophical Magazine, Levittown, PA: Taylor & Francis, 1995-1999.  Four volumes covering 1798-1998.

Dear, Peter (editor), The Scientific Enterprise in Early Modern Europe: Readings from Isis, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Densmore, Dana, Newton's Principia: The Central Argument, translation, notes & expanded proofs by Dana Densmore; translation and illustrations by W. H. Donahue, Santa Fe, NM: Green Lion Press, 1995.

DeVorkin, David, The History of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics: A Selected, annotated Bibliography, New York: Garland, 1982.

Dijksterhuis, E. J., The Mechanization of the World Picture, translated by C. Dikshoorn, New York: Oxford University Press, 1969

Drake, Stillman (editor and translator), Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo, Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957

Drake, Stillman, Galileo, New York: Hill and Wang, 1980

Dugas, René, History of Mechanics, New York: Dover, 1988.

Dugas, René, Mechanics in the 17th Century, New York: Central Book Co., 1958.

Duhem, Pierre, Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, translated by P. P. Wiener, New York: Atheneum, 1962.

Einstein, Albert, "Autobiographical Notes," in Albert Einstein Philosopher-Scientist (edited by P. A. Schilpp), pages 1-95, La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1970; also reprinted as a separate book, Autobiographical Notes: A Centennial Edition, Chicago: Open Court, 1991

Einstein, Albert, Collected Papers, edited by John Stachel et al., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987-

Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions, translated by Sonja Bargmann, New York: Modern Library, 1994.

Einstein, Albert, Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, translated by R. W. Lawson, second edition, New York: Crown, 1995.

Einstein, Albert, and Infeld, Leopold, The Evolution of Physics, from early concepts to Relativity and Quanta, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966

Everdell, William R., The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of 20th-Century Thought, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997

Everitt, C. W. F., James Clerk Maxwell, Physicist and Natural Philosopher, New York: Scribner, 1975

Feynman, Richard P., The Character of Physical Law, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1973.

Frank, Phillipp, Einstein, His Life and Times, New York: Da Capo Press, 1979

French, A. P. and Greenslade, T. B., Jr. (editors), Physics History from AAPT Journals, II, College Park, MD: American Association of Physics Teachers, 1995.

Freund, Ida, The Study of Chemical Composition, An Account of its Method and Historical Development, New York: Dover, 1968

Galileo Galilei, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, translated with revised notes by S. Drake, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1967

Galileo Galilei, Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo, translated with notes by S. Drake, Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957

Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences, Including Centers of Gravity & Force of Percussion, translated by S. Drake, second edition, Toronto: Wall & Thompson, 1989

Galison, Peter, How Experiments End, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987

Galison, Peter, Image and Logic: A Historical Culture of Microphysics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Garber, Elizabeth, The Language of Physics: The Calculus and the Development of Theoretical Physics in Europe, 1750-1914, Boston: Birkhäuser, 1999

Garber, Elizabeth, Brush, Stephen G., and Everitt, C. W. F. (editors), Maxwell on Molecules and Gases, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986

Geymonat, Ludovico, Galileo Galilei, A Biography and Inquiry into his Philosophy of Science, translated by S. Drake, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965

Gillispie, C. C. (editor), Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vols. 1-16, New York: Scribner, 1970-80; supplements, Vols. 17-18 (1990) edited by F. L. Holmes

Gjertsen, D., The Newton Handbook, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986

Grant, Edward, The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Hall, A. Rupert, From Galileo to Newton, 1630-1720, New York: Dover, 1981

Hall, A. Rupert, The Revolution in Science 1500-1750, New York: Longman, 1983

Hall, A. Rupert, and Hall, Marie Boas, A Brief History of Science, Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1988

Hall, Marie Boas (editor), Nature and Nature's Laws: Documents of the Scientific Revolution, New York: Harper & Row, 1970

Hall, Marie Boas, The Scientific Renaissance 1450-1630, New York: Harper, 1966

Hanson, Norwood Russell, Constellations and Conjectures, Boston: Reidel, 1973

Harman, P. M., Energy, Force, and Matter: The Conceptual Development of Nineteenth-Century Physics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982

Heilbron, J. L., Elements of Early Modern Physics, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982

Heilbron, J. L., and B. R. Wheaton, B. R., Literature on the History of Physics in the 20th Century, Berkeley, CA: University of California, Office for the History of Science and Technology, 1981

Henry, John, The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of Modern Science, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997

Hetherington, Norriss S. (editor), Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives, New York: Garland, 1993

Hetherington, Norriss S. (editor), Encyclopedia of Cosmology: Historical, Philosophical, and Scientific Foundations of Modern Cosmology, New York: Garland, 1993.

Hoffmann, Dieter, Bevilacqua, Fabio, and Stuewer, Roger H. (editors), The Emergence of Modern Physics, Pavia, Italy: Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 1996.

Holmes, F. L. (editor), Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Supplement II (Vols. 17 & 18), New York: Scribner, 1990, includes biographies of scientists who died since 1970.

Holton, Gerald, The Advancement of Science and its Burdens, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Holton, Gerald, Einstein, History, and other Passions: The Rebellion against Science at the End of the Twentieth Century, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996.

Holton, Gerald, The Scientific Imagination, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Holton, Gerald, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, Kepler to Einstein, revised edition, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Hoskin, Michael (editor), The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Howson, Colin (editor), Method and Appraisal in the Physical Sciences, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Ihde, Aaron J., The Development of Modern Chemistry, New York: Harper & Row, 1964.

Jacob, James R., The Scientific Revolution: Aspirations and Achievements, 1500-1700, Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 1999.

Jammer, Max, Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics, second edition, New York: Tomash/American Institute of Physics, 1989.

Jungnickel, Christa, and McCormmach, Russell Intellectual Mastery of Nature, Vol. I, The Torch of Mathematics 1800-1870; Vol. 2, The Now Mighty Theoretical Physics 1870-1925, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Kepler, Johannes, The Harmony of the World, translated with introduction and notes by E. J. Aiton, A. M. Duncan and J. V. Field, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1997 (Memoirs, Vol. 209)

Kevles, Daniel J., The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Kitcher, Philip, The Advancement of Science: Science without Legend, Objectivity without Illusions, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Knight, David, Ideas in Chemistry, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

Koyré, Alexandre, From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968.

Koyré, Alexandre, Metaphysics and Measurement, New York: Gordon & Breach, 1992.

Koyré, Alexandre, Newtonian Studies, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Krige, John, and Pestre, Dominique (editors), Science in the 20th Century, Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, 1997.

Kuhn, Thomas S., The Copernican Revolution, New York: Fine Communications, 1997.

Kuhn, Thomas S., The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Kuhn, Thomas S., The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, third edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Lang, Kenneth R., and Gingerich, Owen (editors), Source Book in Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1900-1975, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Lankford, John (editor), History of Astronomy: An Encyclopedia, New York: Garland, 1997.

Leverington, David, A History of Astronomy, from 1890 to the present, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995.

Lightman, Alan, Great Ideas in Physics, second edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Lindberg, David, The Beginnings of Western Science, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Lindberg, David, Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

Lodge, Oliver, Pioneers of Science, and the Development of their Scientific Theories, New York: Dover, 1960.

Lucretius, On the Nature of the Universe, translated by Ronald Melville from De Rerum Natura, with introduction and notes by Don and Peta Fowler, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.

Mach, Ernst, Popular Scientific Lectures, translated by T. J. McCormack, Chicago: Open Court, 1986.

Mach, Ernst, The Science of Mechanics, translated by T. J. McCormack, sixth edition, LaSalle, IL: Open Court, 1960.

Machamer, Peter (editor), The Cambridge Companion to Galileo, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Mauskopf, Seymour H. (editor), Chemical Sciences in the Modern World, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.

Mason, Stephen F., A History of the Sciences, new revised edition, New York: Collier Books, 1962.

Maxwell, James Clerk, Maxwell on Molecules and Gases (edited by E. Garber et al.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

Maxwell, James Clerk, The Scientific Letters and Papers (edited by P. M. Harman), New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990-

McClellan, James E., III, and Dorn, Harold, Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

McKenzie, A. E. E., The Major Achievements of Science, Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1988.

Merton, Robert K., "Singletons and Multiples in Scientific Discovery," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 57, pages 1-23 (1969)

Merton, Robert K., The Sociology of Science, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Moyer, Albert E., American Physics in Transition, Los Angeles: Tomash, 1983.

Moyer, Albert E., "History of Physics" [in 20th century America], Osiris, new series, Vol. 2, pages 163-182 (1985)

Newton, Isaac, Opticks: Or, A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light, based on the fourth edition (1730), New York: Dover, 1979.

Newton, Isaac, Newton's Philosophy of Nature, selections from his writings, edited and arranged with notes by H. S. Thayer, New York: Hafner, 1953.

Newton, Isaac, The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, translated by I. B. Cohen and Anne Whitman, with the assistance of Julia Budenz, preceded by a Guide to Newton's Principia by I. B. Cohen, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

North, John, Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology, New York: Norton, 1995.

Nye, Mary Jo, Before Big Science: The Pursuit of Modern Chemistry and Physics 1800-1940, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Nye, Mary Jo, From Chemical Philosophy to Theoretical Chemistry: Dynamics of Matter and Dynamics of Disciplines, 1800-1950, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.

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4. Answers to Selected Numerical Problems

 

1.1       Upper limit for circumference, 260,000 stadia; for radius, 41,500 stadia. Lower limit for circumference, 240,100 stadia; for radius, 38,300 stadia. For results in miles, divide each number by 10.

1.3       Least distance = 114 AU; α Centauri, 4,500 AU

2.4       For the minimum distance from earth to Venus, using data available to Copernicus gives the distance gives about 2 x 106 km; from modern data this is about 4.13 x 107 km.

4.2       Approximately 0.12

4.4       Saturn 9.66 AU (modern value 9.539); Venus 0.825 AU (0.723)

6.4       (a)75 m at 5 sec; just greater than 105 m at 7.005 sec; 150 m at 10 sec

6.7       8.3 mi/hr

6.9       2.02 sec (for the second post), 2.86 sec, 3.50 sec, 4.04 sec  

6.13      3.64 x 10-4 sec (assuming it was uniformly accelerated)

8.4       (a) +5.1 m, -34.2 m, -230.1 m; (b) +0.2 m/sec, -19.4      m/sec, -58.6 m/sec

8.5       2.02 sec

8.6       10.2 sec, 2433 m, 8820 m

9.5       25.9 kg; 0.263 m/sec

9.10      less than 10-5 N

9.13      1.56 kg

9.15      2.94 m/sec²; 127 N

9.18      -2 x 10-20 km/hr

10.2      0.7 mile

10.5      29.9 km/sec

11.6      5.38 x 1026 kg

11.9      (a) earth 5.53 x 103 kg/m3, moon 3.78 x 103 kg/m3,

              sun 1.73 x 103 kg/m3.  (c) (i) 1/6 gearth, (ii) 32 gearth

11.13     1.24 x 10-3 rad/sec, or 1 revolution in 84.5 min

11.18     A possible law is R = 2n + 1, in which case R5 = 33

16.2      (a) 10 m/sec.  (b) approx. 10-21 m/sec. (c) 12.5 x 5 N

16.3      5.351 m (independent of how fast he walks).

17.3      (a) 1. (b) 0.

17.8      (a)  0.99 m/sec. (b) 0.0495 J.  (c) 0.0245 J.

17.12     27.44 m above the floor; KE = 2.37 J, PE = 1.35 J

17.16     (b) 3/4 of the way down.

17.22     (a) 26 J.  (b) 0.77 (= 77%)

17.24     0.78 degree (C)

19.2      Volume of sample = 0.248 L.

20.2      (a) Oxynitric acid = NO3, nitrous acid = N2O3, etc.

20.11     Wood alcohol = 32.042, ethyl alcohol = 46.068, etc. 

20.15     AlCl3 + 3Na ® 3NaCl + Al

20.18     Mass of hydrogen atom = 1.67 x 10-24 g

22.1      (a) approx. 650 K.  (b) 1.25 x 1022  

22.4      At a given temperature hydrogen molecules will be traveling at a speed 3.74 times that for nitrogen molecules.

22.6      (a) 617 joule

24.9      (b) F = 9.2 x 10-8 N.  (c) The gravitational force is about 3 x 10-40 as strong as the electrostatic force. (d) 6.25 x 1018.

24.21     -3.6 x 1011 volts

26.1      207 nm for Vega; 1160 nm for Antares

26.6      Magnitude between successive steps is 3.97 x 10-19 J

27.13     (b) 0.028%

27.15     2.65 x 10-14 m

28.3      (b) 26

28.14     78,500 K

29.3      (a) ³ 1.16 x 10-4 m.  (b) ³ 1.05 x 10-35 m.  

30.11     (b) v/c = 0.86

30.14     m/m0 » 1 + 0.6 x 10-12 (your weight increases by less than one part in 1012).